Overview of selected research: What threatens dignity

Many of the threats to dignity take place at an apparently small-scale, practical level. These can involve, for example:

Older people raised all of these with researchers as factors undermining dignity.

Some of these certainly have their roots in the quality of management, training, supervision and leadership. Remedies have repeatedly been suggested which emphasise these factors. But some commentators (Macdonald, 2001) have seen the need for deeper analysis and more fundamental change. Increasingly, research and policy has begun to focus on the nature of society and on a series of interrelated factors that act as barriers to dignity in care.