COVID-19 resources

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COVID-19 has made children more worried, scared, and lonely


Findings from a YouGov Children’s Omnibus survey of 1,013 UK children between the ages of 6 and 15 showing how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected children across the UK during 2020. Two in five children reported feeling lonelier as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic; and girls are more likely than boys to have felt more worried, stressed, scared, trapped, lonely and tired as a result of the pandemic.

Last updated on hub: 19 January 2021

COVID-19 hospital discharge service requirements

Department of Health and Social Care

This guidance sets out how health and care systems and care providers should change their hospital discharging arrangements and provision of community support during the coronavirus outbreak. It provides details of a discharge to assess model which will be introduced across England to enable the discharge of all patients as soon as they are clinically safe to do so. Individual sections of the guidance detail what these changes mean for all health and care sectors with a role in hospital discharge. It highlights actions for: providers of acute care, providers of community health services; Councils and Adult Social Care services; Clinical Commissioning Groups; the Voluntary sector; and Care providers, including providers of care homes, home care and equipment and technology. Links to a range of resources to help achieve this new way of operating are also included. The guidance comes into effect from 19th March 2020. [This publication was withdrawn on 25 August 2020]

Last updated on hub: 23 March 2020

COVID-19 IE and PA updates

Skills for Care

Signposts to the latest information and guidance dedicated to individual employers (personal health budget holders and direct payment recipients) and personal assistants during the COVID-19 crisis.

Last updated on hub: 29 June 2020

COVID-19 impact on social work admissions and education in seven international universities

Social Work Education (The International Journal)

Inter-country Social Work admissions and educational comparisons are difficult due to variance in policy and practices between Social Work educational providers, even within the same country. However, this paper aims to provide an examination of different levels of impact that COVID-19 ‘lockdown’ had on ‘admissions to social work’ processes and on education, using examples from universities in Australia, England, Finland, Northern Ireland, Norway, Ireland and Sweden. Already we know that across these examples, admission processes differ significantly. Variances are between selection and entry methodologies with some institutions using academic entry criteria and personal statements and interviews, while others use academic entry criteria and relevant experience or academic entry only. We also know that practicum duration is variable across providers, lasting between 75 and 200 days. Despite all differences, a distinct adjustment to lockdown required a shift to virtual teaching methods for each institution. This paper seeks to explore the range of approaches adopted to lockdown in relation to practice learning placements in each example. This paper considers the underpinning values and principles that guided responses to the change processes in the various institutions and longer-term implications emerging from the required rapid change processes are discussed.

Last updated on hub: 09 November 2020

COVID-19 in Japan, Part 1: the impact on social foster care

Scottish Journal of Residential Child Care

In Japan, the response to COVID-19 was a soft approach with no enforcement, unlike the lockdown with penalties in other countries. The government's response was to temporarily close elementary, junior high, and high schools across the country. That impacted children living with foster families, and in residential care institutions for children (RCIC). This short article reflects on foster care in Japan during COVID-19. The study uses fictional cases of foster parents and RCIC constructed for research purposes. Although the COVID-19 crisis highlighted the challenges of social care in Japan, it also presents an opportunity for social change.

Last updated on hub: 06 October 2020

COVID-19 in Japan, Part 2: the impact on social foster care leavers

Scottish Journal of Residential Child Care

The global spread of COVID-19 has greatly impacted society worldwide. People are unexpectedly finding themselves being forced to live differently than they are used to, especially those in vulnerable positions. In particular, care leavers who have left social foster care and live in the community are encountering difficult situations both financially and mentally without having parents or other family members to rely on. The results of questionnaires and interview surveys with care leavers suggest that it is necessary to expand the consultation support system for care leavers and to provide support to prevent isolation. It was also confirmed that the expansion of multiple and diverse financial support is an urgent issue.

Last updated on hub: 06 October 2020

COVID-19 in long-term care facilities: An upcoming threat that cannot be ignored

Perspective published in the Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection in June 2020. The perspective considers the the spread of COVID-19 in long-term care facilities in the United States up to the time of publication. Concludes that infection prevention and control (IPC) polices should be established in long-term care facilities and strictly adhered to in order to prevent this disease from entering these facilities and spreading within and outside of them. Citation: Lai, C. C., et al. (2020). COVID-19 in long-term care facilities: An upcoming threat that cannot be ignored. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, 53(3), 444.

Last updated on hub: 19 October 2020

COVID-19 in older people: a rapid clinical review

Age and Ageing

Introduction: the COVID-19 pandemic poses a high risk to older people. The aim of this article is to provide a rapid overview of the COVID-19 literature, with a specific focus on older adults. We frame our findings within an overview of the disease and have also evaluated the inclusion of older people within forthcoming clinical trials. Methods: we searched PubMed and bioRxiv/medRxiv to identify English language papers describing the testing, treatment and prognosis of COVID-19. PubMed and bioRxiv/medRxiv searches took place on 20 and 24 March 2020, respectively. Results: screening of over 1,100 peer-reviewed and pre-print papers yielded n = 22 on COVID-19 testing, n = 15 on treatment and n = 13 on prognosis. Viral polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serology are the mainstays of testing, but a positive diagnosis may be increasingly supported by radiological findings. The current evidence for the effectiveness of antiviral, corticosteroid and immunotherapies is inconclusive, although trial data are largely based on younger people. In addition to age, male gender and comorbidities, specific laboratory and radiology findings are important prognostic factors. Evidence suggests that social distancing policies could have important negative consequences, particularly if in place for an extended period. Conclusion: given the established association between increasing age and poor prognosis in COVID-19, we anticipate that this rapid review of the current and emergent evidence might form a basis on which future work can be established. Exclusion of older people, particularly those with comorbidities, from clinical trials is well recognised and is potentially being perpetuated in the field of current COVID-19 research.

Last updated on hub: 18 August 2020

COVID‐19 in the geriatric population

International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry

Objectives: The global COVID‐19 pandemic has caused rapid and monumental changes around the world. Older people, who already experience higher rates of social isolation and loneliness, are more susceptible to adverse effects as a result of the social distancing protocols enacted to slow the spread of COVID‐19. Based on prior outbreaks, the authors speculate the detrimental outcomes and offer solutions. Methods: Reviewing the literature on the detrimental effects of social isolation and loneliness and higher mortality in the older population. Utilizing psychological study outcomes from prior major outbreaks such as in SARS, Ebola, H1N1 influenza, and Middle East respiratory syndrome offer predictions and the susceptibility in the geriatric age group. Results: Organizations such as the WHO, Centers for Disease Control, and American Association of Retired Persons have put measures in place to provide networking on a local, regional, and national level. These efforts are designed to start mitigating such detrimental effects. A necessary follow‐up to this pandemic will be gathering data on unique populations such as the geriatric community, to better mitigate adverse outcomes given the certainty that COVID‐19 will not be the last global viral outbreak. Conclusions: The results of worsened social isolation and loneliness is associated with significantly increased morbidity and mortality in the geriatric population. Various solutions including virtual interactions with loved ones, engaging in physical activity, continuing any spiritual or religious prayers remotely, and community services to provide aid for the older population are all efforts to minimize social isolation and loneliness.

Last updated on hub: 12 October 2020

Covid-19 infection and attributable mortality in UK long term care facilities: cohort study using active surveillance and electronic records (March-June 2020)


This article is a preprint and has not been peer-reviewed. The lead researcher was Peter F Dutey-Magni. Background: Rates of Covid-19 infection have declined in many countries, but outbreaks persist in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) who are at high risk of severe outcomes. Epidemiological data from LTCFs are scarce. This study used population-level active surveillance to estimate incidence of, and risk factors for Covid-19, and attributable mortality in elderly residents of LTCFs. Methods: Cohort study using individual-level electronic health records from 8,713 residents and daily counts of infection for 9,339 residents and 11,604 staff across 179 UK LTCFs. This study modelled risk factors for infection and mortality using Cox proportional hazards and estimated attributable fractions. Findings: 2,075/9,339 residents developed Covid-19 symptoms (22.2% [95% confidence interval: 21.4%; 23.1%]), while 951 residents (10.2% [9.6%; 10.8%]) and 585 staff (5.0% [4.7%; 5.5%]) had laboratory confirmed infections. Confirmed infection incidence in residents and staff respectively was 152.6 [143.1; 162.6] and 62.3 [57.3; 67.5] per 100,000 person-days. 121/179 (67.6%) LTCFs had at least one Covid-19 infection or death. Lower staffing ratios and higher occupancy rates were independent risk factors for infection. 1,694 all-cause deaths occurred in 8,713 (19.4% [18.6%; 20.3%]) residents. 217 deaths occurred in 607 residents with confirmed infection (case-fatality rate: 35.7% [31.9%; 39.7%]). 567/1694 (33.5%) of all-cause deaths were attributable to Covid-19, 28.0% of which occurred in residents with laboratory-confirmed infection. The remainder of excess deaths occurred in asymptomatic or symptomatic residents in the context of limited testing for infection, suggesting substantial under-ascertainment. Interpretation: 1 in 5 residents had symptoms of infection during the pandemic, but many cases were not tested. Higher occupancy and lower staffing levels increase infection risk. Disease control measures should integrate active surveillance and testing with fundamental changes in staffing and care home occupancy to protect staff and residents from infection.

Last updated on hub: 31 August 2020