COVID-19 resources on Infection control

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How societal responses to COVID-19 could contribute to child neglect

Child Abuse and Neglect

Background: The ecosystemic approach to children’s needs demands a cohesive response from societies, communities, and families. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the choices societies made to protect their community members from the virus could have created contexts of child neglect. With the closure of services and institutions, societies were no longer available to help meet the needs of children. Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine parents’ reports on the response their children received to their needs during the COVID-19 crisis. Methods: During the period of the spring 2020 lockdown, 414 parents in the province of Quebec, Canada, completed an online questionnaire about the impact of the crisis on the response their children received to their needs. Results: Compared to parents of younger children, parents of older children reported less fulfilment of their child’s needs in three measured domains, namely cognitive and affective, security, and basic care needs. Conclusion: These results are discussed in light of the policies and the resources societies have put in place during the crisis to help families meet the needs of their children. Societies must learn from this crisis to put children at the top of their priorities in the face of a societal crisis. Thoughtful discussions and energy must be given to ensure that, while facing a crisis, the developmental trajectories of children are not sacrificed.

Last updated on hub: 14 June 2021

Adult social care in England, monthly statistics: June 2021

Department of Health and Social Care

This statistical bulletin provides an overview on a range of information on social care settings, with a focus on the impact of COVID-19. This report provides newly published information on: selected infection prevention control (IPC) measures in care homes at national, regional and local authority (LA) level; staffing levels in care homes at national, regional and LA level; personal protective equipment (PPE) availability in care homes at national, regional and LA level; testing for COVID-19 in care homes at national, regional and LA level. This report also includes previously published statistics on first and second dose uptake of COVID-19 vaccinations in adult social care settings. As of 25 May 2021, the proportions who had received both doses of the COVID-19 vaccine were: 88.0% of residents and 65.7% of staff of older adult care homes; 79.4% of residents of younger adult care homes; 61.1% of staff of younger adult care homes, 48.0% of domiciliary care staff and 22.7% of staff employed in other social care settings.

Last updated on hub: 14 June 2021

Adult social care in England, monthly statistics: May 2021

Department of Health and Social Care

This statistical bulletin provides an overview on a range of information on social care settings, with a focus on the impact of COVID-19. This report provides newly published information on: selected infection prevention control (IPC) measures in care homes at national, regional and local authority (LA) level; staffing levels in care homes at national, regional and LA level; testing for COVID-19 in care homes at national, regional and LA level. This report also includes previously published statistics on first dose uptake of COVID-19 vaccinations in adult social care settings. As of 27 April 2021, the proportions who had received the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine were: 94.6% of residents and 81.0% of staff of older adult care homes; 89.8% of residents of younger adult care homes; 77.5% of staff of younger adult care homes, 72.8% of domiciliary care staff and 70.7% of staff employed in other social care settings.

Last updated on hub: 14 June 2021

How Brazilian therapeutic communities are facing COVID-19?

Therapeutic Communities: the International Journal of Therapeutic Communities

Purpose: This paper aims to reflect upon the findings of a fast-track study carried out in April 2020, by the Brazilian Federation of Therapeutic Communities, focused on the impact of the first measures taken by the Brazilian therapeutic communities (TCs) in response to COVID-19. Design/methodology/approach: An electronic survey was disseminated to TCs in the different regions of Brazil through online platforms. A total of 144 TCs responses were used in the final analysis. The survey collected the following information: suspected and confirmed cases of COVID-19 (only one case of COVID-19 was confirmed), changes in treatment protocols, the impact in admissions and daily activities and the safety measures adopted to stop or reduce the transmission between residents, families and staff. Findings: The survey successfully collected general data regarding interruptions (82.6% of TCs interrupted admissions, 100% of TCs interrupted volunteer’s activities, 94% of TCs interrupted family visits and 93% of TCs interrupted external activities). Research limitations/implications: The caveat of this study is the fact that there were tight deadlines for the TCs to generate their responses and the limited availability of staff to answer long surveys. Because of this, the study could not explore other important qualitative data. The results were shared in Brazil and Latin America with the staff of TCs, the national Federations of Therapeutic Communities and government agencies linked with them, in all Latin America. Originality/value: This research aims to contribute to the adoption of developed prophylaxis and prevention protocols in response to COVID-19.

Last updated on hub: 11 June 2021

Third quarterly report on progress to address COVID-19 health inequalities

Her Majesty's Government

This is the third quarterly report on progress to address the findings of Public Health England’s (PHE) review into disparities in the risks and outcomes of COVID-19. The report summarises work across government and through national and local partnerships, to improve vaccine uptake among ethnic minorities. A data-informed approach, targeted communication and engagement and flexible deployment models are the cornerstones of vaccine equalities delivery. This approach includes measures to support vaccinations during Ramadan, extending the use of places of worship as vaccination centres to around 50 different venues with many more acting as pop-up sites, delivering out of hours clinics, outreach into areas of lower uptake and encouraging family group vaccinations for those living in multi-generational homes who may be at increased risk of contracting and transmitting COVID-19 infection. This report also summarises progress with the Community Champions scheme that was launched in January, outlining activity across the 60 local authorities that received funding through this scheme. By the end of the second month, there were over 4,653 individual Community Champions working on the programme, who are playing a vital role in tackling misinformation and driving vaccine uptake. Communications and cross-government COVID-19 campaign activity over the last 3 months has continued to focus on encouraging vaccine uptake as the rollout expands. While positive vaccine sentiment has increased over time, there is still hesitancy to be addressed. The increase in the Black population is substantial but vaccine confidence is still lower in this group than any other. This remains a particular issue for Black healthcare workers.

Last updated on hub: 09 June 2021

VacciNation: exploring vaccine confidence with people from African, Bangladeshi, Caribbean and Pakistani backgrounds living in England: insight report

Healthwatch England

Findings from a study to better understand current trends in vaccine barriers among Black and Asian people. The report is based on in-depth conversations and online exercises with 95 participants from African, Bangladeshi, Caribbean, and Pakistani ethnicity over a period of five weeks during March and April. Attitudes to the vaccine are incredibly personal and we cannot make any broad conclusions about whole communities from our findings. We have drawn out some key themes to support improvement in the way the NHS and other public health professionals communicate with the public. These are: individual agency and an ability for a person to act on their own behalf is important in relation to the COVID-19 vaccine; independence of institutions and those who speak for them; participants associated levels of trust with the level of real-world experience an individual had; participants linked the notions of transparency and trust together; targeted messaging can have the opposite to the intended impact; conscious and unconscious trust needs to be considered.

Last updated on hub: 08 June 2021

Would you take a COVID-19 vaccine? Rapid survey report and recommendations on the social care sector 2020

This rapid report summarises the findings from our recent survey of people working in social care nationally on whether they would have a COVID-19 vaccine and why. Survey results were taken over the period 15th November 2020 to 30th November 2020. This is during the time that reports of successful trials for viable vaccines were first released but just shy of verification by the medicines regulator, the MHRA, of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine which was announced on 2nd December 2020. We asked respondents to comment on their confidence in taking a vaccine. We were particularly interested in the reasons behind any misgivings about taking a vaccine. The aim of this report is to assist health professionals and policy makers in providing specific and directed messaging about any potential vaccine which will directly address reported concerns. We identified the following themes from responses to our survey and concerns raised: side effects; efficacy; age and existing health conditions; and transparency and trust. The research has found that clear FAQs providing information on the vaccine, trust in messaging and roll out capability, as well as making it easy to physically access the vaccination site, are amongst key implications for improving uptake of the vaccine across the social care workforce.

Last updated on hub: 07 June 2021

Evidence summary: strategies to support uptake of Covid-19 vaccinations among staff working in social care settings

International Long-term Care Policy Network

This evidence summary provides a rapid review of international evidence on measures to increase update of Covid-19 vaccinations among staff working in social care settings, covering evidence available up to May 2021. Key findings include: modelling studies suggest that increasing levels of staff vaccination in care homes may significantly reduce the number of symptomatic cases among care residents, even in scenarios where the majority of residents are already fully vaccinated; around 2 in 5 local authorities in England report staff vaccination rates below the 80% threshold advised by SAGE for older adult care homes; a number of factors are associated with lower uptake of Covid-19 vaccine among long-term care staff, including access barriers, lack of sufficient information and education about the vaccine, mistrust, and sociodemographic factors (age, gender, ethnicity and income); there are live discussions on how to increase uptake of vaccination among people working in social care settings, including, in many countries, a consideration of making Covid-19 vaccination mandatory for specific groups; a recent international overview has shown that very few governments have mandated Covid-19 vaccination of people working in social care settings – to date, evidence of the effectiveness of mandatory policies compared to alternative strategies, in increasing uptake of Covid-19 vaccines among long-term care staff specifically, is limited; other strategies to encourage vaccine take-up and reduce hesitancy, besides mandating, include strategies based on behavioural insights, such as the use of targeted communications, increasing the convenience of being vaccinated, and sufficient time for staff to discuss concerns with peers, managers and trusted professionals.

Last updated on hub: 01 June 2021

Adult social care and COVID-19 after the first wave: assessing the policy response in England

The Health Foundation

This briefing analyses policies to support adult social care during the height of the second wave of the pandemic in January and February 2021, and in the months leading up to it. It provides a narrative summary of central government policies related to adult social care in different areas, such as policies on testing and support for the workforce. It also offers a summary of the latest publicly available data on the impacts of COVID-19 on adult social care. In the final part, the paper makes an assessment of the policy response since June 2020, considers how policies changed over time, and identifies priorities for the future. Overall, we found a mixed picture. Support in some areas improved, such as access to testing and PPE, and the priority given to social care appeared to increase. Groups using and providing social care were prioritised for COVID-19 vaccines, alongside the NHS. This is likely to have offered much greater protection to care home residents and others. However, major challenges remained. Government policy on social care was often fragmented and short-term, creating uncertainty for the sector and making it harder to plan ahead. There have also been persistent gaps in the national policy response, including support for social care staff and people providing unpaid care. Major structural issues in social care have shaped the policy response and effects of COVID-19 on the sector, including chronic underfunding, workforce issues, system fragmentation, and more. COVID-19 also appears to have made some longstanding problems worse, such as unmet need for care and the burden on unpaid carers.

Last updated on hub: 01 June 2021

A data linkage approach to assessing the contribution of hospital-associated SARS-CoV-2 infection to care home outbreaks in England, 30 January to 12 October 2020

Public Health England

This study investigated care homes that received coronavirus (COVID-19) positive patients discharged from hospital, and subsequently experienced an outbreaks (herein referred to as hospital associated seeding of care home outbreaks). Hospital discharge records were linked to laboratory confirmed COVID-19 cases to identify care home residents who may have acquired their COVID-19 infection whilst in hospital and subsequent to their discharge, their care homes experienced an outbreak of COVID-19. In summary: from 30 January to 12 October 2020, there were a total of 43,398 care home residents identified with a laboratory confirmed positive COVID-19 test result; of these, 35,760 (82.4%) were involved in an outbreak, equivalent to a total of 5,882 outbreaks; 1.6% (n=97) of outbreaks were identified as potentially seeded from hospital associated COVID-19 infection, with a total of 806 (1.2%) care home residents with confirmed infection associated with these outbreaks; the majority of these potentially hospital-seeded care home outbreaks were identified in March to mid-April 2020, with none identified from the end of July until September where a few recent cases have emerged.

Last updated on hub: 31 May 2021

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