COVID-19 resources on infection control

Results 31 - 40 of 400

Order by    Date Title

Annex A: COVID-19 vaccine and health inequalities: considerations for prioritisation and implementation

Department of Health and Social Care

The purpose of this paper is to consider the impact on and implications for health inequalities in the prioritisation of COVID-19 vaccines when they are introduced in the context of initial supply constraints. This paper expands on the considerations informing the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) interim advice on priority groups for COVID-19 vaccine, which is intended to support the government in planning the vaccine programme, and it offers further considerations for its implementation. The conceptual framework adopted is one based on consideration of scientific evidence, ethics and deliverability, with a focus on the ethical principles of maximising benefit and minimising harm, promoting transparency and fairness, and mitigating inequalities in health. While age has the absolute highest risk of poor COVID-19 outcomes, many factors are associated with an increased relative risk (such as belonging to a BAME group and being male). These are mediated by a complex web of factors which are not straightforward to disentangle and can be potentially misleading, and if misinterpreted when translated to policy, can be damaging to populations and widen health inequalities. al conditions, and health and social care worker status (thus providing NHS resilience). While prioritisation alone cannot address all inequalities in health that are rooted in social determinants, planning and implementation should as a minimum not worsen health inequalities, and present a unique opportunity to mitigate them.

Last updated on hub: 07 December 2020

As if expendable: the UK government’s failure to protect older people in care homes during the Covid-19 pandemic

Amnesty International UK

This report examines the impact of decisions, policies, and decision-making processes at the national and local level on the human rights of older people in care homes in England in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. It is based on interviews with 18 relatives of older people who either died in care homes or are currently living in care homes in different parts of England; nine owners, managers and staff of care homes in different parts of the country; eight staff and volunteers working in non-profit organisations advocating on behalf of care home residents and staff; three members of parliament and local authorities, and four legal and medical professionals. Among the government’ failures, the report highlights discharge of patients from hospitals into care homes; denial of access to hospitals and other medical services; misuse of ‘do not attempt resuscitation’ (DNAR) forms; inadequate access to testing; insufficient PPE and poor PPE guidance; poor, late and contradictory guidance; and failure to respond to gaps in staffing. The report also discusses the suspension of visits and failure of oversight, including the failure to wear PPE, challenges of remote communications and the devastating impact of prolonged isolation. The report argues that the UK government’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic violated the human rights of older people in care homes in England and that remedial action must be taken without delay to ensure that mistakes are not repeated. It calls for a full independent public inquiry to consider the overall pandemic preparations and response in adult social care and care homes, including a full investigation into actions taken to ensure a comprehensive and timely cross-government response for social care and a review of the adequacy of the funding made available to support adult social care services and care homes in responding to the pandemic.

Last updated on hub: 05 October 2020

Asymptomatic carriage rates and case fatality of SARS-CoV-2 infection in residents and staff in Irish nursing homes

Age and Ageing

Background: SARS-CoV-2 has disproportionately affected nursing homes (NH). In Ireland, the first NH case COVID-19 occurred on 16 March 2020. A national point-prevalence testing programme of all NH residents and staff took place (18 April 2020 to 5 May 2020). Aims: to examine characteristics of NHs across three Irish Community Health Organisations, proportions with COVID-19 outbreaks, staff and resident infection rates symptom profile and resident case fatality. Methods: in total, 45 NHs surveyed, requesting details on occupancy, size, COVID-19 outbreak, outbreak timing, total symptomatic/asymptomatic cases and outcomes for residents from 29 February 2020 to 22 May 2020.Results: surveys were returned from 62.2% (28/45) of NHs (2,043 residents, 2,303 beds). Three-quarters (21/28) had COVID-19 outbreaks (1,741 residents, 1,972 beds). Median time from first COVID-19 case in Ireland to first case in these NHs was 27.0 days. Resident incidence was 43.9% (764/1,741)—40.8% (710/1,741) laboratory confirmed, with 27.2% (193/710) asymptomatic and 3.1% (54/1,741) clinically suspected. Resident case fatality was 27.6% (211/764) for combined laboratory-confirmed/clinically suspected COVID-19. Similar proportions of residents in NHs with ‘early-stage’ (<28 days) versus ‘later-stage’ outbreaks developed COVID-19. Lower proportions of residents in ‘early’ outbreak NHs had recovered compared with those with ‘late’ outbreaks (37.4 versus 61.7%; χ2 = 56.9, P < 0.001). Of 395 NH staff across 12 sites with confirmed COVID-19, 24.7% (99/398) were asymptomatic. There was a significant correlation between the proportion of staff with symptomatic COVID-19 and resident numbers with confirmed/suspected COVID-19 (Spearman’s rho = 0.81, P < 0.001). Conclusion: this study demonstrates the significant impact of COVID-19 on the NH sector. Systematic point-prevalence testing is necessary to reduce risk of transmission from asymptomatic carriers and manage outbreaks in this setting.

Last updated on hub: 21 January 2021

August 2020 interim EUGMS guidance to prepare European long-term care facilities for COVID-19

European Geriatric Medicine

Aim: To guide LTCFs in preventing the entrance and spread of SARS-CoV-2. Findings: The guidance is based upon the literature available on August 17, 2020. It lists (1) measures that can be implemented to keep COVID-19 out of LTCFs, and (2) COVID-19 symptoms that require RT-PCR testing in residents, staff members and visitors. It also (3) indicates the strategy to be used when a first LCTF resident or staff member is infected, and (4) proposes measures to limit adverse effects of the quarantine of residents tested positive for COVID-19. Message: The EuGMS guidance enables LTCFs to adapt and suitably implement infection prevention and control measures, considering that the priorities are (1) early detection of symptomatic and asymptomatic COVID-19 residents, staff members and visitors who contribute to the entrance and dissemination of COVID-19 infection in LTCFs and (2) to limit the negative effects of isolation in infected residents.

Last updated on hub: 07 December 2020

Babies in lockdown: listening to parents to build back better

Best Beginnings

Findings from an online survey of over 5,000 mothers, fathers and other co-parents, capturing the experiences of parents coping with the implications of COVID-19 lockdown, and highlighting the lack of support for families, and the inequalities in babies’ early experiences. The report reveals that almost 7 in 10 respondents found their ability to cope with their pregnancy or baby had been impacted as a result of COVID-19; nearly 7 in 10 felt the changes brought about by COVID-19 were affecting their unborn baby, baby or young child; only one third expressed confidence in being able to access mental health support if required; and many families with lower incomes, from Black, Asian and minority ethnic communities and young parents have been hit harder by the COVID-19 pandemic and were less likely to receive the support they needed. The report makes three policy calls: a one-off Baby Boost to enable local services to support families who have had a baby during or close to lockdown; a new Parent-Infant Premium providing new funding for local commissioners, targeted at improving outcomes for the most vulnerable children; and significant and sustained investment in core funding to support families from conception to age two and beyond, including in statutory services, charities and community groups.

Last updated on hub: 11 August 2020

Beating the Virus

Beyond Words

A short wordless story to help people understand what to do if they have Coronavirus and how to keep themselves and those who they care about safe. The story also shows how to safely help others who may be self-isolating. Supplementary text at the end of the story gives information on where people can seek help if they are unwell and signposts to other useful resources.

Last updated on hub: 12 October 2020

Behind the headlines: time to bring our care workers in from the cold

Age UK

This report highlights the extent to which the Covid-19 crisis has thrown into sharp relief how poorly care workers are supported to do their work. Staff shortages, lack of protective equipment, and poor pay and conditions have left many exhausted mentally and physically, challenging their ability to continue to deliver high quality care. Despite being roughly equivalent in size to the NHS workforce, the 1.65 million strong care workforce has seen limited support put in place. While the NHS has been prioritised for PPE, testing, mental health support, priority access to shops and pay rises, offers to social care have been more limited and have generally only arrived very late in the day. The report calls on the Government to rebuild the care system with properly funded and thoroughgoing reform, to ensure care work become an attractive and properly paid career, its terms and conditions on a par with the same jobs carried out in the NHS.

Last updated on hub: 10 November 2020

Best interests decisions: A COVID-19 quick guide

Social Care Institute for Excellence

This quick guide aims to help people across social care and health settings to apply its provisions about making best interests decisions in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Last updated on hub: 16 July 2020

Briefing on protecting vulnerable people during the COVID-19 outbreak: report

Local Government Association

This briefing offers information to help councils to support and protect people who are vulnerable as a result of the coronavirus (COVID-19) emergency. It includes information supporting those who are clinically vulnerable to COVID-19 and work that is taking place, led largely by councils and the voluntary and community sector (VCS), to protect other vulnerable groups. These include people facing financial hardship as a result of COVID-19, those already accessing care and support services, homeless people and rough sleepers, and those experiencing a reduction in usual services. Sections cover: an overview of the system for supporting vulnerable people; identifying vulnerable groups; types of support needs, such as housing and accommodation, food, medicine and mental wellbeing; and key considerations for councils in coordinating local support. The briefing will also help the NHS, community and voluntary sector and other partner agencies to understand the role of local government in supporting vulnerable people. It will be updated as and when necessary to keep up with the changing situation.

Last updated on hub: 09 April 2020

Briefing: improving the nation’s health: the future of the public health system in England

The Health Foundation

In light of the impact of the pandemic and the government’s decision to abolish Public Health England (PHE), this briefing explores what needs to be put in place to make progress on the government’s commitments to improve the nation’s health. It begins by looking at the role government can play in improving the nation’s health before examining how England might transition to a new public health system and what the main priorities for any new system should be. The paper argues that the new system needs the right strategy, structures and resources: the strategy for creating an effective new public health system should include a cross-government commitment to level up health outcomes and enable people to live longer in good health; the structures needed include an independent body to report to parliament on the nation’s health, a national function supporting the public health system, and strengthened local and regional infrastructure; the resources needed include, as a minimum, £1bn to restore public health funding to its 2015 levels and a further £2.5bn needed to level up public health across the country. Government should also commit to ensuring that public health funding keeps pace NHS with funding increases in future. The transition to a new public health system needs to be managed carefully, to ensure that the reorganisation does not disrupt the pandemic response or lead to a weaker system in future.

Last updated on hub: 08 December 2020

Order by    Date Title