COVID-19 resources on Infection control

Results 391 - 400 of 425

Order by    Date Title

The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence


The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak has seen many countries ask people who have potentially come into contact with the infection to isolate themselves at home or in a dedicated quarantine facility. Decisions on how to apply quarantine should be based on the best available evidence. This review looks at the psychological impact of quarantine using three electronic databases. Of 3166 papers found, 24 are included. Most reviewed studies reported negative psychological effects including post-traumatic stress symptoms, confusion, and anger. Stressors included longer quarantine duration, infection fears, frustration, boredom, inadequate supplies, inadequate information, financial loss, and stigma. Some researchers have suggested long-lasting effects. In situations where quarantine is deemed necessary, officials should quarantine individuals for no longer than required, provide clear rationale for quarantine and information about protocols, and ensure sufficient supplies are provided. Appeals to altruism by reminding the public about the benefits of quarantine to wider society can be favourable.

Last updated on hub: 27 April 2020

The rapid learning initiative into the transmission of COVID-19 into and within care homes in Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland. Department of Health

This report provides the findings of the Rapid Learning Initiative with regards to the transmission of Covid-19 into and within care homes during the first surge of the pandemic, and makes recommendations on the way forward prior to further potential surges of infection. It details the findings of each of the four sub-groups, which considered: the experience of residents, families and staff; symptom monitoring, interventions and testing; infection prevention and control; and physical distancing, reduced footfall and restricted visiting. The initiative identified three overarching structures and processes that will need to be established to support the delivery of outcomes and bring about a learning system that works across Heath and Social Care (HSCNI), including the independent sector and Trusts: at strategic level, the collaborative partnerships established for the purposes of the Initiative should continue and develop further to support future development of Strategy and Policy; a regional learning system should be developed and include key quality indicators for Care Homes (led by frontline staff) using real-time data that can for continuous improvement; and a quality improvement learning system should include building the capability and capacity within Care Home staff to use continuous improvement methodologies to implement operational improvement as a system.

Last updated on hub: 07 September 2020

The supply of personal protective equipment (PPE) during the COVID-19 pandemic

National Audit Office

This report focuses on the supply of personal protective equipment (PPE) during the pandemic. It examines: responsibilities for PPE supply in England (Part One); the emergency response to PPE shortages, focusing on the performance of national bodies in obtaining and distributing PPE to local organisations (Part Two); the experience of health and social care providers and their workforce (Part Three); and the Department of Health & Social Care’s (the Department’s) new PPE strategy (Part Four). The Government initially considered it was well-placed for managing the supply of PPE in a pandemic, with tested plans and a stockpile in place. But neither the stockpiles nor the usual PPE-buying and distribution arrangements could cope with the extraordinary demand created by the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, government’s structures were overwhelmed in March 2020. Once government recognised the gravity of the situation it created a parallel supply chain to buy and distribute PPE. However, it took a long time for it to receive the large volumes of PPE ordered, particularly from the new suppliers, which created significant risks. There were further difficulties with distribution to providers and many front-line workers reported experiencing shortages of PPE as a result. The initial focus on the NHS meant adult social care providers felt particularly unsupported. Government has budgeted an unprecedented £15 billion of taxpayers’ money to buy PPE for England during 2020-21. It has paid very high prices given the very unusual market conditions, and hundreds of millions of pounds-worth of PPE will not be used for the original intended purpose.

Last updated on hub: 26 November 2020

The UK response to Covid-19: use of scientific advice: first report of session 2019–21

House of Commons

An analysis of the way the Government has received, and applied, scientific evidence and advice during the first period of the coronavirus pandemic up to autumn 2020. The report distils the evidence from scientists and policy makers given at a number of oral evidence sessions contemporaneous with rapidly evolving policy decisions, and from written submissions from leading experts. It considers the nature and function of official scientific advisory structures; the transparency of scientific advice; and the use of data in informing the UK's Covid-19 response. The principal conclusions and recommendations of the report are: the Government has been serious about taking scientific advice; the length of the pandemic has placed exceptional demands on the people contributing their expertise and on the structures, which were designed for shorter term emergencies; in the early stages of the pandemic a more explicit evaluation by public health authorities of the operational practices in other countries – such as test, trace and isolate measures in certain Asian countries – should have been made; although the scientific analysis that informs government decisions is now much more transparent, the evaluation of other factors that the government takes into account to determine policy – such as impacts on livelihoods and educational progress – is markedly less visible; it has been important and reassuring for the public to see and hear directly from senior scientists and that should continue; fragmentation of data across different public bodies needs to be resolved to allow the most effective response to the pandemic; The role of scientific advice in shaping the choice of operational targets has not always been clear.

Last updated on hub: 11 January 2021

The vulnerability of nursing home residents to the Covid-19 pandemic

International Journal of Care Coordination

Residents in nursing homes and other long-term care facilities comprise a large percentage of the deaths from Covid 19. Is this inevitable or are there problems with NHs and their care that increase the susceptibility of their residents. The first U.S. cluster of cases involved the residents, staff, and visitors of a Seattle-area nursing home. Study of this cluster suggested that infected staff members were transmitting the disease to residents. The quality of nursing home care has long been a concern and attributed to chronic underfunding and resulting understaffing. Most NH care is delivered by minimally trained nursing assistants whose low pay and limited benefits compel them to work in multiple long-term care settings, increasing their risk of infection, and work while ill. More comparative studies of highly infected long-term care facilities with those organizations that were able to better protect their residents are urgently needed. Early evidence suggests that understaffing of registered nurses may increase the risk of larger outbreaks.

Last updated on hub: 03 December 2020

Tips on visiting care home residents as lockdown eases

Brings together guidance and advice on how the public can visit care home residents as the COVID-19 lockdown measures ease. The resource covers: government guidelines to care home visits for England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland; how care homes enable visitors; what to do before visiting a care home; what to expect from the first visit after lockdown; and visiting a relative living with dementia in a care home.

Last updated on hub: 27 July 2020

Two monthly report on the status of the non-devolved provisions of the Coronavirus Act 2020

Department of Health and Social Care

This report, published in May 2020, details the status of the main non-devolved government provisions set out in The Coronavirus Act 2020. The Act gives the government temporary powers to respond to the progress of the coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic. These powers are designed to be switched on when necessary, and off when no longer needed. The Act requires ministers to report every two months on which powers are currently active. This report includes a table providing details of the main provisions in the Coronavirus Act 2020, use of the provision since Royal Assent, and whether the provision is currently in force. Provisions covered by the Act included: increasing the available health and social care workforce; easing the burden on frontline staff; containing the virus; managing the deceased with respect and dignity; and supporting people.

Last updated on hub: 03 June 2020

Uncovering the devaluation of nursing home staff during COVID-19: Are we fuelling the next health care crisis?

Journal of the American Medical Directors Association

Editorial. As the COVID-19–related mortality rate of nursing home residents continues to rise, so too will the rates of mortality and morbidity of staff who care for them. The COVID-19 pandemic has also revealed and accentuated the ageism and devaluing of older people pervasive in many societies. The editorial suggests that we need to better protect and support the frail older adults residing in nursing homes, their relatives, and the workforce (staff and leadership) that provide care in these settings. The editorial goes on to provide some considerations for nursing home leaders and regulators to support the health and well-being of nursing home staff and residents. These are categorized into 4 main areas: clear direction and guidance, keeping staff healthy, human resource policies, and implementing new clinical changes. The editorial concludes that the key message for policy makers is that we need to bring to the forefront the critical role of leaders and their capacity to effectively lead in nursing homes, which are complex environments.

Last updated on hub: 21 August 2020

Understanding the impact of COVID-19 responses on citizens

Social Care Institute for Excellence

A guide that discusses the impact of COVID-19 and responses on people who use or interact with social care services.

Last updated on hub: 29 June 2020

Unequal impact? Coronavirus and BAME people: third report of session 2019-21

House of Commons

Findings from an inquiry exploring the extent to which, throughout the coronavirus pandemic, Black, Asian, and minority ethnic (BAME) people have been affected by pre-existing inequalities across a huge range of areas, including health, employment, accessing Universal Credit, housing and the no recourse to public funds policy. The report considers the health factors that have exacerbated the impact of the coronavirus pandemic for BAME people, including the role played by comorbidities, health inequalities, and other wider determinants of health. It examines the interplay between an individual’s occupation and their exposure to the virus; the relationship between pre-existing occupational inequality and how this was heightened by the economic consequences of the pandemic; and how BAME people have been particularly affected by zero-hour contracts during the pandemic. The report also looks at some of the challenges faced by BAME people when applying for Universal Credit (UC), as more people are turning to the UC system to access necessary support; and examines how pre-existing housing inequalities amplified the impact of coronavirus for BAME communities, focusing on the health impacts of overcrowding and housing conditions. Finally, the report highlights early evidence suggesting that there are severe impacts of the no recourse to public funds policy that need to be addressed.

Last updated on hub: 15 December 2020

Order by    Date Title