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Results for 'evidence'

Results 1 - 10 of 17

Community exchange and time currencies: a systematic and in-depth thematic review of impact on public health outcomes

LEE C, et al
2020

Objectives: Austerity in government funding, and public service reform, has heightened expectations on UK communities to develop activities and resources supportive of population health and become part of a transformed place-based system of community health and social care. As non-monetary place-based approaches, Community Exchange/Time Currencies could improve social contact and cohesion, and help mobilise families, neighbourhoods, communities and their assets in beneficial ways for health. Despite this interest, the evidence base for health outcomes resulting from such initiatives is underdeveloped. Study design: A systematic review. Methods: A literature review was conducted to identify evidence gaps and advance understanding of the potential of Community Exchange System. Studies were quality assessed, and evidence was synthesised on ‘typology’, population targeted and health-related and wider community outcomes. Results: The overall study quality was low, with few using objective measures of impact on health or well-being, and none reporting costs. Many drew on qualitative accounts of impact on health, well-being and broader community outcomes. Although many studies lacked methodological rigour, there was consistent evidence of positive impacts on key indicators of health and social capital, and the data have potential to inform theory. Conclusions: Methodologies for capturing impacts are often insufficiently robust to inform policy requirements and economic assessment, and there remains a need for objective, systematic evaluation of Community Exchange and Time Currency systems. There is also a strong argument for deeper investigation of ‘programme theories’ underpinning these activities, to better understand what needs to be in place to trigger their potential for generating positive health and well-being outcomes.

The contribution of community singing groups to the well-being of older people: participant perspectives from the United Kingdom

SKINGLEY Ann, MARTIN Anne, CLIFT Stephen
2016

Current evidence suggests that participatory arts activities, and particularly group singing, may contribute to the well-being of older people. However, there is currently a paucity of prospective research from the participant perspective. This qualitative study nested within a randomized controlled trial aimed to assess participants’ perspectives of the acceptability and effect on health and well-being of a community singing program for older people. Volunteers recruited to the intervention arm (n = 131) were invited to write comments on their experiences over three data collection points of a 14-week singing program. A subsample (n = 19) participated in a retrospective semi-structured interview. Data were subjected to content and thematic analysis. Comments and interviews from 128 individuals suggested that the singing groups led to specific, incremental benefits to physical, psychological, social, and community well-being. Benefits tended to tail off after the program ended. Suggestions were made for the future running of such groups.

Nostalgia as a psychological resource for people with dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence of effectiveness from experimental studies

ISMAIL Sanda Umar, et al
2020

Objective: This review systematically examines evidence relating to the effect of nostalgia on psychological well-being through a meta-analysis of measures of social connectedness, self-esteem, meaning in life, self-continuity, optimism and positive and negative affect. Rationale: If nostalgia is to be used as a clinical intervention to boost well-being in dementia by reducing threat, then it is important to assess its therapeutic potential. Results: Searches carried out in July 2014 and updated in February 2018 identified 47 eligible experimental studies comparing nostalgic reminiscence and non-nostalgic reminiscence to be included in the meta-analysis. Nostalgic reminiscence had moderate effects on positive affect (0.51 (0.37, 0.65), p= 0.001), social connectedness (0.72 (0.57, 0.87), p= 0.001), self-esteem (0.50 (0.30, 0.70), p= 0.001), meaning in life (0.77 (0.47, 1.08), p= 0.001) and optimism (0.38 (0.28, 0.47), p= 0.001) and a large effect on self-continuity (0.81 (0.55, 1.07), p= 0.001). There was, however, no difference between the effect of nostalgic reminiscence and non-nostalgic reminiscence for negative affect (−0.06 (−0.20, 0.09), p= 0.443). Conclusion: This systematic review and meta-analysis provides an overview of the evidence base for nostalgia. This is an important stage in developing nostalgia as a clinical intervention for people with dementia which might be achieved, for instance, by adapting current reminiscence and life review techniques. This meta-analysis will therefore also serve as a valuable reference point for the continued exploration of nostalgia as an intervention.

Wellbeing evidence at the heart of policy

HARDOON Deborah, HEY Nancy, BRUNETTI Silvia
2020

Improving wellbeing is widely recognised as a goal of policy and practice. This report sets out the state of the evidence and next steps for applying a wellbeing approach to decision making in the UK. It looks at what is meant by wellbeing and how it is currently measured in the UK and Internationally. It considers how wellbeing can be improved, including a review evidence of what works and tools those working in a policy context need to implement these findings. It also considers the challenges of implementing a wellbeing approach and the role businesses, communities and individuals can play. The final section outlines some of the issues which have yet to be tackled in order for wellbeing to become the dominant narrative which underpins the decisions taken.

Electronic assistive technology for community-dwelling solo-living older adults: a systematic review

SONG Yu, van der CAMMEN Tischa J.M.
2019

The proportion of older adults who live alone in single households is growing continuously. In the care of these solo-living older adults, electronic assistive technology (EAT) can play an important role. The objective of this review is to investigate the effects of EAT on the wellbeing of community-dwelling older adults living alone in single households. A systematic review of English articles was conducted based on PMC, Scopus, Web of Science and the Cochrane database. Additional studies were identified from the references. In total, 16 studies were identified, six of them with follow-up. There is evidence that EAT can improve the physical and mental wellbeing of older adults. There was little evidence that EAT can improve social wellbeing. We conclude that more personalized designs and interventions, and more user engagement could be embedded in the design of EAT for solo-living community-dwelling older adults and that more evidence is needed regarding the effects of those interventions.

How do “robopets” impact the health and well‐being of residents in care homes? A systematic review of qualitative and quantitative evidence

ABBOTT Rebecca, et al
2019

BACKGROUND: Robopets are small animal-like robots which have the appearance and behavioural characteristics of pets. OBJECTIVE(S): To bring together the evidence of the experiences of staff, residents and family members of interacting with robopets and the effects of robopets on the health and well-being of older people living in care homes. DESIGN: Systematic review of qualitative and quantitative research. DATA SOURCES: This study searched 13 electronic databases from inception to July 2018 and undertook forward and backward citation chasing. METHOD(S): Eligible studies reported the views and experiences of robopets from residents, family members and staff (qualitative studies using recognised methods of qualitative data collection and analysis) and the effects of robopets on the health and well-being of care home residents (randomised controlled trials, randomised crossover trials and cluster randomised trials). Study selection was undertaken independently by two reviewers. This study used the Wallace criteria and the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool to assess the quality of the evidence. This study developed a logic model with stakeholders and used this as a framework to guide data extraction and synthesis. Where appropriate, meta-analysis were used to combine effect estimates from quantitative studies. RESULT(S): Nineteen studies (10 qualitative, 2 mixed methods and 7 randomised trials) met the inclusion criteria. Interactions with robopets were described as having a positive impact on aspects of well-being including loneliness, depression and quality of life by residents and staff, although there was no corresponding statistically significant evidence from meta-analysis for these outcomes. Meta-analysis showed evidence of a reduction in agitation with the robopet "Paro" compared to control (-0.32 [95% CI -0.61 to -0.04, p = 0.03]). Not everyone had a positive experience of robopets. CONCLUSION(S): Engagement with robopets appears to have beneficial effects on the health and well-being of older adults living in care homes, but not all chose to engage. Whether the benefits can be sustained are yet to be investigated. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Robopets have the potential to benefit people living in care homes, through increasing engagement and interaction. With the robopet acting as a catalyst, this engagement and interaction may afford comfort and help reduce agitation and loneliness.

Non-pharmacological interventions for people with dementia: a review of reviews

MEYER Claudia, O'KEEFE Fleur
2018

Objective: Aged care services increasingly respond to the needs of people with dementia. Non-pharmacological approaches are preferable to reduce responsive behaviours, improve/maintain functional capacity and reduce emotional disorders. This rapid review of systematic reviews aimed to consolidate the evidence for non-pharmacological interventions and determine outcome effectiveness. Methods: Systematic review literature was comprehensively searched for non-pharmacological interventions for dementia in residential care. Quality ratings used adapted GRADE methodology, and ease of implementation assessed. Results: Of 629 abstracts screened, 81 full-text articles were retrieved, 38 articles included. The strongest evidence for reducing responsive behaviours was music, sensory stimulation, simulated presence and validation therapies. Exercise and light therapy improved/maintained activities of daily living, while cognitive stimulation and reminiscence improved cognition. Strongest evidence for reducing emotional disorders was music, psychological interventions and reminiscence. Conclusion: Much evidence of varying quality exists, with resource-constrained residential care providers now able to make evidence-based decisions about non-pharmacological interventions.

A life less lonely: the state of the art in interventions to reduce loneliness in people with mental health problems

MANN F., et al
2017

PURPOSE:: There is growing evidence of significant harmful effects of loneliness. Relatively little work has focused on how best to reduce loneliness in people with mental health problems. This study aims to present an overview of the current state of the art in loneliness interventions in people with mental health problems, identify relevant challenges, and highlight priorities for future research and implementation. METHODS: A scoping review of the published and grey literature was conducted, as well as discussions with relevant experts, to propose a broad classification system for types of interventions targeting loneliness. RESULTS: Interventions were categorised as 'direct', targeting loneliness and related concepts in social relationships, and 'indirect' broader approaches to well-being that may impact on loneliness. Four broad groups are described of direct interventions: changing cognitions; social skills training and psychoeducation; supported socialisation or having a 'socially-focused supporter'; and 'wider community approaches'. The most promising emerging evidence appears to be in 'changing cognitions', but, as yet, no approaches have a robust evidence base. Challenges include who is best placed to offer the intervention, how to test such complex interventions, and the stigma surrounding loneliness. CONCLUSIONS: Development of clearly defined loneliness interventions, high-quality trials of effectiveness, and identifying which approaches work best for whom is required. Promising future approaches may include wider community initiatives and social prescribing. It is important to place loneliness and social relationships high on the wider public mental health and research agenda.

What works in social prescribing?

CORDIS BRIGHT
2019

Based on a review of the literature, this evidence summary highlights the potential of social prescribing services to combat the root social causes of ill health and alleviate demand on healthcare services. The review provides a definition of social prescribing and outlines the key ingredients for successful social prescribing services. These key ingredients cover: funding, buy-in of health professionals, referral process, link workers, patient-centred care, collaborative working and integration between different sectors. The review also explores potential barriers to the widespread adoption of social prescribing services. It notes that robust evidence for social prescribing remains weak, with the majority of evaluations small in scale and poorly designed.

A connected society. A strategy for tackling loneliness: laying the foundations for change

GREAT BRITAIN. Her Majesty's Government
2018

This strategy builds on the work of the Jo Cox Commission on Loneliness and sets out the government's approach to tackling loneliness in England. The strategy highlights the role that everyone can play in tackling loneliness, including government, communities and the individual. The government's work on loneliness is guided by three overarching goals: building the evidence base, embedding loneliness as a consideration across government policy, and building a national conversation on loneliness, to raise awareness of its impacts and to help tackle stigma. Chapter one provides a summary of the existing evidence base on loneliness, including its impacts and causes. The following three chapters set out government commitments and partnerships in three areas seen as crucial to build a connected society. These are: organisations and services - how government, working with local authorities, health bodies, businesses and the voluntary sector will introduce a range of new initiatives that enable the everyday services we use to connect those at risk of loneliness to support; community infrastructure – such as accessing community space, transport and well designed housing; and building a culture that encourages strong social relationships – including tackling stigma surrounding loneliness and supporting community groups. Chapter five sets out how government will take this agenda forward and sets out a commitment from the Loneliness Action Group to continue its work until at least the end of 2019. The document highlights examples from practice throughout.

Results 1 - 10 of 17

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News

Moving Memory

Moving Memory Practice example about how the Moving Memory Dance Theatre Company is challenging perceived notions of age and ageing.

Chatty Cafe Scheme

Chatty Cafe Scheme Practice example about how the Chatty Cafe Scheme is helping to tackle loneliness by bringing people of all ages together

Oomph! Wellness

Oomph! Wellness Practice example about how Oomph! Wellness is supporting staff to get older adults active and combat growing levels of social isolation

KOMP

KOMP Practice example about how KOMP, designed by No Isolation is helping older people stay connected with their families

LAUGH research project

LAUGH research project Practice example about a research project to develop highly personalised, playful objects for people with advanced dementia
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