Results for 'evidence'
Results 1 - 7 of 7
The growing prevalence of dementia, combined with an absence of effective pharmacological treatments, highlights the potential of psychosocial interventions to alleviate the effects of dementia and enhance quality of life. With reference to a manifesto from the researcher network Interdem, this paper shows how arts activities correspond to its definition of psycho-social care. It presents key dimensions that help to define different arts activities in this context, and illustrates the arts with reference to three major approaches that can be viewed online; visual art, music and dance. It goes on to discuss the features of each of these arts activities, and to present relevant evidence from systematic reviews on the arts in dementia in general. Developing the analysis into a template for differentiating arts interventions in dementia, the paper goes on to discuss implications for future research and for the uptake of the arts by people with dementia as a means to self-care.
GARDINER Clare, GELDENHUYS Gideon, GOTT Merryn
Loneliness and social isolation are major problems for older adults. Interventions and activities aimed at reducing social isolation and loneliness are widely advocated as a solution to this growing problem. The aim of this study was to conduct an integrative review to identify the range and scope of interventions that target social isolation and loneliness among older people, to gain insight into why interventions are successful and to determine the effectiveness of those interventions. Six electronic databases were searched from 2003 until January 2016 for literature relating to interventions with a primary or secondary outcome of reducing or preventing social isolation and/or loneliness among older people. Data evaluation followed Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Co‐ordinating Centre guidelines and data analysis was conducted using a descriptive thematic method for synthesising data. The review identified 38 studies. A range of interventions were described which relied on differing mechanisms for reducing social isolation and loneliness. The majority of interventions reported some success in reducing social isolation and loneliness, but the quality of evidence was generally weak. Factors which were associated with the most effective interventions included adaptability, a community development approach, and productive engagement. A wide range of interventions have been developed to tackle social isolation and loneliness among older people. However, the quality of the evidence base is weak and further research is required to provide more robust data on the effectiveness of interventions. Furthermore, there is an urgent need to further develop theoretical understandings of how successful interventions mediate social isolation and loneliness.
WESTON Andrew, et al
This report highlights the potential of the voluntary and community sectors to help shape health and care reform, and identifies the added-value that the sector can bring. The research was commissioned by the Richmond Group of Charities and it assessed the findings of 175 evaluations into how the voluntary sector's offer can be integrated into the health and care system of the future. It also presents a framework for a shared language, to help charities describe their work and its value, and to give commissioners and policymakers a way to identify the aspects of charities’ work that most clearly match their needs. The majority of findings reviewed related to health and wellbeing outcomes. The review found strong evidence that charities achieve health and wellbeing outcomes through direct treatment and support and supported self-management and good evidence that charities deliver health and wellbeing and productivity and efficiency outcomes through system redesign. The report concludes that charities can add value to the health and care system in a range of ways and that charities have a legitimate role in the transformation of the NHS and the wider health and care system in the coming years. The report makes recommendations that could support the voluntary, community and statutory sectors to change their behaviour to support this changes happen at a faster pace.
MCDAID David, BAUER Annette, PARK A-La
Summarises findings from a systematic review on the available economic evidence on the cost effectiveness of loneliness interventions for older people. The review found mixed evidence for the cost effectiveness of befriending interventions and the benefits of participation in social activities, ranging from cost saving to cost ineffective interventions. Recent evidence identified suggests that signposting and navigation services have the potential to be cost effective, with a saving of up to £3 of health costs for every £1 invested. The paper also makes suggestions for strengthening the evidence based on the cost effectiveness of interventions to address loneliness.
GRAHAM Jullie Tran, RUTHERFORD Katy
This report looks at the value of peer support and the part it can play in a people-powered health system. It also shares practical insights from 10 organisations involved in Nesta’s Centre for Social Action Innovation Fund on how peer support can be effectively scaled and spread to benefit more people. The ten case studies provide details of the peer support innovations and evidence of their impact to date. The peer support models developed included one-to-one peer support, group peer support and digital approaches. From the ten peer support innovations, the report highlights key learning about the realities of delivering peer support across a range of conditions and with very different groups of people. These covers engaging people in peer support; recruiting, training and supporting peer facilitators; and evaluating and improving peer support. The report finds that peer support has the potential to improve psychosocial outcomes, behaviour, wellbeing outcomes, and service use. It also found that reciprocity was an important motivator for volunteers and that the most effective volunteers were trained and well supported. It concludes with what the future might hold for those working with and commissioning peer support in England. Recommendations include developing relationships with public service professionals to help them understand the value of peer support and embedding peer support alongside existing services.
This report explores the evidence base around effective and cost-effective preventative services and the role that they can play in supporting older people’s independence, health and wellbeing. It looks at the available evidence to support the benefits of preventative services in mitigating social inclusion and loneliness and improving physical health. It also highlights evidence on the effectiveness of information, advice and signposting in helping people access preventative services and the benefits of providing practical interventions such as minor housing repairs. It considers a wide range of primary and secondary preventative services, including: health screening, vaccinations, day services, reablement, and care coordination and management. It then outlines two teritary prevention services which aim to prevent imminent admission to acute health settings. These are community based rapid response services and ambulatory emergency care units, which operation within the secondary care environment. The report then highlights gaps in the evidence base and and looks at what is needed to develop preventative services to achieve health and independent ageing by 2013. It looks at the changes needed in service funding and commissioning, the balance between individual responsibility and organisational support, and how preventative services should be implemented.
The importance of health, social care and other sectors working together has been recognised for many decades by governments of all political persuasion. This is true within the current policy environment, in which integration has been proposed as the binding force to connect an increasingly diverse range of providers around individual patients and their families. Initiatives to promote integration are being introduced at all levels of the system, with a patient experience based narrative setting the standard against which success should be judged. This integration is being encouraged not only in respect of statutorily funded clinical, public health and social care services but also with other policy areas such as housing and leisure and other sectors (in particular the third sector). Despite this continued belief in policy that integration will lead to a more preventative focus, there is not a strong research base to support this view. However, accepting the limitations of the evidence base, this Policy Paper looks at five key lessons which can still be drawn for national policy makers with responsibility for promoting integration and prevention. These are to: start with what is fragmented; be clear what is meant (by integration); know what success looks like; understand the impact; and be wary of further change. The paper draws attention to key findings from reviews of integrated care; and notes that the interventions that have been most effective have been those with more preventative approaches. It concludes that patients and service users have to integrate support from statutory services, community resources and their personal networks to improve their quality of life and maintain their health and independence. To understand how and when to integrate, we first need to be clear what links are required and how they could operate in practice. That is why fragmentation rather than integration should be the starting point to achieve a prevention orientated health and social care system. This policy paper is based on a discussion paper which was commissioned by the Institute for Social Change at Manchester University as part of a series of Knowledge Exchange Trials workshops which brought together academics, policy makers and programme stakeholders to facilitate exchange of ideas, expertise and research.
Results 1 - 7 of 7