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Results for 'intervention'

Results 1 - 10 of 103

Effect of horticultural therapy on wellbeing among dementia day care programme participants: a mixed-methods study

HALL Jodi, et al

Fourteen people attending an adult day programme were recruited to a structured horticultural therapy programme which took place over 10 weeks. The effects were assessed using Dementia Care Mapping and questionnaires completed by family carers. High levels of wellbeing were observed while the participants were engaged in horticultural therapy, and these were sustained once the programme was completed. This study adds to the growing evidence on the benefits of horticultural therapy for people with dementia who have enjoyed gardening in the past.

Using dolls for therapeutic purposes: A study on nursing home residents with severe dementia


Objectives: Among the psychosocial interventions intended to reduce the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), doll therapy (DT) is increasingly used in clinical practice. Few studies on DT have been based on empirical data obtained with an adequate procedure; however, none have assessed its efficacy using an active control group, and the scales used to assess changes in BPSD are usually unreliable. The aim of the present study was to measure the impact of DT on people with severe dementia with a reliable, commonly used scale for assessing their BPSD, and the related distress in formal caregivers. Effects of DT on the former's everyday abilities (i.e., eating behaviour) were also examined. Method: Twenty‐nine nursing home residents aged from 76 to 96 years old, with severe dementia (Alzheimer's or vascular dementia), took part in the experiment. They were randomly assigned to an experimental group that used dolls or an active control group that used hand warmers with sensory characteristics equivalent to the dolls. Benefits of DT on BPSD and related formal caregiver distress were examined with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. The effects of DT on eating behaviour were examined with the Eating Behavior Scale. Results: Only the DT group showed a reduction in BPSD scores and related caregiver distress. DT did not benefit eating behaviour, however. Conclusions: This study suggests that DT is a promising approach for reducing BPSD in people with dementia, supporting evidence emerging from previous anecdotal studies.

Efficacy of nature-based therapy for individuals with stress-related illnesses: randomised controlled trial

STIGSDOTTER Ulrika Karlsson, et al

Background: Stress-related illnesses are a major threat to public health, and there is increasing demand for validated treatments. Aims: To test the efficacy of nature-based therapy (NBT) for patients with stress-related illnesses. Method: Randomised controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01849718) comparing Nacadia® NBT (NNBT) with the cognitive–behavioural therapy known as Specialised Treatment for Severe Bodily Distress Syndromes (STreSS). In total, 84 participants were randomly allocated to one of the two treatments. The primary outcome measure was the mean aggregate score on the Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWBI). Results: Both treatments resulted in a significant increase in the PGWBI (primary outcome) and a decrease in burnout (the Shirom–Melamed Burnout Questionnaire, secondary outcome), which were both sustained 12 months later. No significant difference in efficacy was found between NNBT and STreSS for primary outcome and secondary outcomes. Conclusions: The study showed no statistical evidence of a difference between NNBT and STreSS for treating patients with stress-related illnesses.

Yoga-based exercise improves health-related quality of life and mental well-being in older people: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

TULLOCH Alice, et al

Objective: health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and mental well-being are associated with healthy ageing. Physical activity positively impacts both HRQOL and mental well-being. Yoga is a physical activity that can be modified to suits the needs of older people and is growing in popularity. A systematic review was conducted with meta-analysis to determine the impact of yoga-based exercise on HRQOL and mental well-being in people aged 60+. Methods: searches were conducted for relevant trials in the following electronic databases; MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, PsycINFO and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) from inception to January 2017. Trials that evaluated the effect of physical yoga on HRQOL and/or on mental well-being in people aged 60+ years were included. Data on HRQOL and mental well-being were extracted. Standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using random effects models. Methodological quality of trials was assessed using the PEDro scale. Results: twelve trials of high methodological quality (mean PEDro score 6.1), totalling 752 participants, were identified and provided data for the meta-analysis. Yoga produced a medium effect on HRQOL (Hedges’ g = 0.51, 95% CI 0.25–0.76, 12 trials) and a small effect on mental well-being (Hedges’ g = 0.38, 95% CI 0.15–0.62, 12 trials). Conclusion: yoga interventions resulted in small to moderate improvements in both HRQOL and mental well-being in people aged 60+ years. Further, research is needed to determine the optimal dose of yoga to maximise health impact.

Cognitive behavioural therapy for fear of falling and balance among older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis

LIU Tai-Wa, et al

Background: fear of falling is prevalent among older people and associated with various health outcomes. A growing number of studies have examined the effects of interventions designed to reduce the fear of falling and improve balance among older people, yet our current understanding is restricted to physiological interventions. Psychological interventions such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) have not been reviewed and meta-analysed. Objective: to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the effects of CBT on reducing fear of falling and enhancing balance in community-dwelling older people. Method: randomised controlled trials (RCTs) addressing fear of falling and balance were identified through searches of six electronic databases, concurrent registered clinical trials, forward citation and reference lists of three previous systematic reviews. Results: a total of six trials involving 1,626 participants were identified. Four studies used group-based interventions and two adopted individual intervention. Intervention period ranged from 4 to 20 weeks, and the number and duration of face-to-face contact varied. Core components of the CBT intervention included cognitive restructuring, personal goal setting and promotion of physical activities. The risk of bias was low across the included studies. Our analysis suggests that CBT interventions have significant immediate and retention effects up to 12 months on reducing fear of falling, and 6 months post-intervention effect on enhancing balance. Conclusions: CBT appears to be effective in reducing fear of falling and improving balance among older people. Future researches to investigate the use of CBT on reducing fear of falling and improving balance are warranted.

Reducing falls in older adults recently discharged from hospital: a systematic review and meta-analysis

NASERI Chiara, et al

Background: older adults are known to have increased falls rates and functional decline following hospital discharge, with substantial economic healthcare costs. This systematic review aimed to synthesise the evidence for effective falls prevention interventions in older adults recently discharged from hospital. Methods: literature searches of six databases of quantitative studies conducted from 1990 to June 2017, reporting falls outcomes of falls prevention interventions for community-dwelling older adults discharged from hospital were included. Study quality was assessed using a standardised JBI critical appraisal tool (MAStARI) and data pooled using Rev-Man Review Manager® Results: sixteen studies (total sample size N = 3,290, from eight countries, mean age 77) comprising 12 interventions met inclusion criteria. Findings: home hazard modification interventions delivered to those with a previous falls history (1 study), was effective in reducing the number of falls (RR 0.63, 95%CI 0.43, 0.93, Low GRADE evidence). Home exercise interventions (3 studies) significantly increased the proportion of fallers (OR 1.74, 95%CI 1.17, 2.60, Moderate GRADE evidence), and did not significantly reduce falls rate (RR 1.27, 95%CI 0.99, 1.62, Very Low GRADE evidence) or falls injury rate (RR 1.16, 95%CI, 0.83,1.63, Low GRADE evidence). Nutritional supplementation for malnourished older adults (1 study) significantly reduced the proportion of fallers (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.19, 0.86, Low GRADE evidence). Conclusion: the recommended falls prevention interventions for older adults recently discharged from hospital are to provide home hazard minimisation particularly if they have a recent previous falls history and consider nutritional supplementation if they are malnourished.

The personal and community impact of a Scottish Men's Shed

FOSTER Emma J., MUNOZ Sarah‐Anne, LESLIE Stephen J.

Social isolation and loneliness are known to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, reducing social isolation and loneliness may improve such outcomes. In relation to men's health, “Men's Sheds” have been shown as one mechanism to achieve this. Studies in Australia and England have shown social, health and personal benefits; however, this remains an area that has not yet been researched in Scotland. This study, therefore, aimed to assess the characteristics of attendees, self‐reported motivations for and the values and benefits of attending the Shed from the views of the attendees themselves. The participants of the study were the members of a Men's Shed in the North of Scotland, which was initially set‐up by a small number of core Shedders. A convenience sample was recruited by opportunistic interviewing of participants when they attended the Shed using a mixed methods approach from 1 to 15 November 2016. In the absence of a validated questionnaire, a bespoke questionnaire was developed in several iterative stages. The answers to the questionnaire were transferred to an electronic database and analysed by frequency and thematic analysis. The participants (n = 31) had a mean age (SD) of 69.7 ± 9.5 with 96.8% being retired, thus the majority of the Shed users were older and retired. The results suggest that there were several benefits from attending the Shed, with an overwhelming majority of the sample reporting personal, social and health benefits—however, more research is needed to determine the magnitude of these. This study has also shown that the men attending the Shed frequently discussed health, which could potentially have a beneficial effect. The Shed therefore, as a community project, has the potential to have a positive impact on health welfare by focusing on the social aspects of life.

Men’s sheds: the perceived health and wellbeing benefits


Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore older men’s perceptions of the health and wellbeing benefits of participating in men’s sheds. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative semi-structured interviews with eight men aged 65 and over from men’s sheds in London. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed by hand, and analysis was conducted through coding of the transcripts. Findings: The results of this study suggested that men’s sheds improved older men’s perceived level of social interaction, men’s outlook, led to self-reported improvements in depression, and all perceived themselves to be fitter since joining. Despite the research being conducted in an urban area, it highlighted the lack of prior community engagement. Research limitations/implications: The sample size used in the research was small and may not be representative of other men’s sheds in different areas, therefore further research with a larger sample should be conducted. Practical implications: A health policy dedicated to males which includes the promotion and funding of men’s sheds, such as in Ireland, should be considered by the government. In addition, clinical commissioning groups should recognise men’s sheds as a non-clinical alternative for their patients through social prescribing in general practice. Finally, in order to achieve the World Health Organisation initiative of creating “age friendly cities” community groups such as men’s sheds need to be promoted and further utilised. Originality/value: There has been little research in the UK.

Arts, health and well-being


An overview of research evidence to show the effectiveness of the arts in promoting and improving people’s health and well-being. The briefing highlights four key areas where the positive impact of arts on health can be found: patient care, healthcare environments, community wellbeing, and caring for care givers. It concludes that there is an expanding body of evidence to support the contribution the arts make to health and wellbeing, but that greater focus needs to be placed on high-quality evaluation of existing initiatives to allow for comparative analysis.

“It was the whole picture” a mixed methods study of successful components in an integrated wellness service in North East England

CHEETHAM M., et al

Background: A growing number of Local Authorities (LAs) have introduced integrated wellness services as part of efforts to deliver cost effective, preventive services that address the social determinants of health. This study examined which elements of an integrated wellness service in the north east of England were effective in improving health and wellbeing (HWB). Methods: The study used a mixed-methods approach. In-depth semi-structured interviews (IVs) were conducted with integrated wellness service users (n = 25) and focus groups (FGs) with group based service users (n = 14) and non-service users (n = 23) to gather the views of stakeholders. Findings are presented here alongside analysis of routine monitoring data. The different data were compared to examine what each data source revealed about the effectiveness of the service. Results: Findings suggest that integrated wellness services work by addressing the social determinants of health and respond to multiple complex health and social concerns rather than single issues. The paper identifies examples of ‘active ingredients’ at the heart of the programme, such as sustained relationships, peer support and confidence building, as well as the activities through which changes take place, such as sports and leisure opportunities which in turn encourage social interaction. Wider wellbeing outcomes, including reduced social isolation and increased self-efficacy are also reported. Practical and motivational support helped build community capacity by encouraging community groups to access funding, helped navigate bureaucratic systems, and promoted understanding of marginalised communities. Fully integrated wellness services could support progression opportunities through volunteering and mentoring. Conclusions: An integrated wellness service that offers a holistic approach was valued by service users and allowed them to address complex issues simultaneously. Few of the reported health gains were captured in routine data. Quantitative and qualitative data each offered a partial view of how effectively services were working.

Results 1 - 10 of 103


LAUGH research project

LAUGH research project New practice example about a research project to develop highly personalised, playful objects for people with advanced dementia

My Guide: new case example

My Guide: new case example My Guide is a sighted guiding service, started by The Guide Dogs for the Blind Association (Guide Dogs), in which trained volunteers assist blind and partially sighted adults to get out and about, thus helping to prevent social isolation.
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