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Results for 'literature reviews'

Results 1 - 10 of 40

Preventive social care: is it cost effective?

CURRY Natasha
2006

This paper attempts to pull together and review key pieces of evidence about the cost effectiveness of prevention. The findings, which reflect a paucity of quantified information about the effectiveness of preventive interventions, suggest that there is a strong financial case for reducing hospitalisation (particularly through falls) and for reducing the rate of institutionalisation by maintaining independence. Small-scale trials show that small interventions could prevent falls and reduce the rate of institutionalisation. However, establishing a direct causal relationship between such interventions and long-term financial savings has proved problematic although. There is a lack of consensus over the cost effectiveness of intermediate care although there is evidence that it is cost effective when targeting specific groups/illnesses/events such as stroke and falls. Evidence for secondary stroke prevention services is perhaps the strongest, and most widely quantified, body of research. There is some evidence that primary prevention strategies (such as smoking cessation and reduced salt intake) have potential to reduce the incidence of stroke. The paper makes a series of recommendations, calling for a greater focus on low-level interventions, particularly where there is qualitative evidence that they are valued by service users; implementation of promising interventions, even if not supported by robust evidence, accompanying by formal evaluation during roll-out; development of standard outcome measures of prevention; targeting resources to ensure greatest impact; and greater integration between health and social care services as a drive to shift services towards the preventive end of the spectrum.

Men's Sheds: a conceptual exploration of the causal pathways for health and well‐being

KELLY Danielle, et al
2019

Although men have a lower life expectancy than women, and are more susceptible to illness, they have been found to be less likely to engage in health‐seeking behaviour. Men's Sheds, as a gendered intervention, has been identified as an effective way to engage men in meaningful activity and gain social support from others. However, links between sheds and health and well‐being are not well‐documented, and evidence is lacking of the potential causal pathways to health generation. This study aims to develop a plausible empirically based causal theory of how Men's Sheds influence the health and well‐being of their participants and to set out future research directions to test this theory. Drawing on a scoping review of academic, peer‐reviewed journal articles published between 1990 and 2018, potential causal linkages between shed activity and health and well‐being outcomes are synthesised into a logic model framework. Sixteen relevant peer‐reviewed journal were identified from the academic literature. The data from the articles are predominantly self‐reported, and characterised by small sample sizes and/ or low response rates. Further, information is lacking on the demographics of Men's Shed participants and the contexts in which they exist. Most notably, while there is some evidence on the potential mental health and social well‐being impacts of shed activities, physical health is less documented. The study shows that there is a lack of reliable and systematic evidence of the potential causal pathways between Men's Shed activities and health and well‐being outcomes. In order to address research gaps, further research is required to test and develop the proposed theory and logic model.

An evidence summary of health inequalities in older populations in coastal and rural areas: full report

PUBLIC HEALTH ENGLAND
2019

A rapid evidence review on the health inequalities experienced by older people in coastal and rural areas, supplemented with case studies. The review aimed to identify key determinants of health inequalities experienced by older populations in coastal and rural areas; looks at the strengths and assets of ageing populations in these areas; reviews the effectiveness health and social care system interventions and whole system approaches; and assess the opportunities for using digital technology. In addition to a rapid review of the national literature (covering the UK and Ireland), a search of international literature focusing on interventions to reduce health inequalities was also carried out. It is intended for local authorities, clinical commissioning groups and other health and care organisations to inform strategic planning, service design and commissioning, as well as the development of local community infrastructure. It also provides summary of key considerations in taking an asset-based approach in reducing inequalities and promoting productive healthy ageing in these areas. Two accompanying reports have also been published, an executive summary with main messages and an annex of included studies.

Loneliness: a reading list

BELLIS Alexander
2019

A selective reading list on loneliness, focusing mainly on research published since 2010. The references discuss both direct and indirect links to outcomes, both social isolation and loneliness or both causes and interventions. The references are categorised into several themes, which include: age-related studies, veterans, homelessness, disabled people, BAME communities, LGBT people, links to health and mental health, social media, costs of loneliness, and loneliness interventions. Not all are based on data from the UK.

A life less lonely: the state of the art in interventions to reduce loneliness in people with mental health problems

MANN F., et al
2017

PURPOSE:: There is growing evidence of significant harmful effects of loneliness. Relatively little work has focused on how best to reduce loneliness in people with mental health problems. This study aims to present an overview of the current state of the art in loneliness interventions in people with mental health problems, identify relevant challenges, and highlight priorities for future research and implementation. METHODS: A scoping review of the published and grey literature was conducted, as well as discussions with relevant experts, to propose a broad classification system for types of interventions targeting loneliness. RESULTS: Interventions were categorised as 'direct', targeting loneliness and related concepts in social relationships, and 'indirect' broader approaches to well-being that may impact on loneliness. Four broad groups are described of direct interventions: changing cognitions; social skills training and psychoeducation; supported socialisation or having a 'socially-focused supporter'; and 'wider community approaches'. The most promising emerging evidence appears to be in 'changing cognitions', but, as yet, no approaches have a robust evidence base. Challenges include who is best placed to offer the intervention, how to test such complex interventions, and the stigma surrounding loneliness. CONCLUSIONS: Development of clearly defined loneliness interventions, high-quality trials of effectiveness, and identifying which approaches work best for whom is required. Promising future approaches may include wider community initiatives and social prescribing. It is important to place loneliness and social relationships high on the wider public mental health and research agenda.

Heritage and wellbeing. The impact of historic places and assets on community wellbeing: a scoping review

PENNINGTON Andy, et al
2019

A scoping review of evidence on the impact of heritage places, interventions, and assets – things like historic objects, monuments or buildings – to discover how they impact individual and community wellbeing. The primary focus of the review was on impacts of historic places and assets set within the ‘living environment’ of communities, but it also considers evidence from projects that used historic objects/artefacts, for example, in the care of people with dementia in care homes and other healthcare settings. The review looked at 75 papers and reports. It found higher and lower quality evidence that historic places, assets and associated activities and interventions can have a wide range of beneficial impacts on the physical, mental and social wellbeing of individuals and communities. These include increased life satisfaction and social connectivity for individuals and positive effects on community wellbeing such as social relationships, sense of belonging, pride of place, ownership and collective empowerment. It also identifies important gaps in the research, and highlights potential negative wellbeing impacts of participating in heritage-based interventions, or living in historic areas. Potential negative impacts of interventions appear to be related to how well the design and delivery of interventions considered the needs of specific individuals and groups.

What works in social prescribing?

CORDIS BRIGHT
2019

Based on a review of the literature, this evidence summary highlights the potential of social prescribing services to combat the root social causes of ill health and alleviate demand on healthcare services. The review provides a definition of social prescribing and outlines the key ingredients for successful social prescribing services. These key ingredients cover: funding, buy-in of health professionals, referral process, link workers, patient-centred care, collaborative working and integration between different sectors. The review also explores potential barriers to the widespread adoption of social prescribing services. It notes that robust evidence for social prescribing remains weak, with the majority of evaluations small in scale and poorly designed.

Interventions to address social connectedness and loneliness for older adults: a scoping review

O'ROURKE Hannah M., COLLINS Laura, SIDANI Souraya
2018

Background: Older adults are at risk for loneliness, and interventions to promote social connectedness are needed to directly address this problem. The nature of interventions aimed to affect the distinct, subjective concepts of loneliness/social connectedness has not been clearly described. The purpose of this review was to map the literature on interventions and strategies to affect loneliness/social connectedness for older adults. Methods: A comprehensive scoping review was conducted. Six electronic databases were searched from inception in July 2015, resulting in 5530 unique records. Standardized inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied, resulting in a set of 44 studies (reported in 54 articles) for further analysis. Data were extracted to describe the interventions and strategies, and the context of the included studies. Analytic techniques included calculating frequencies, manifest content analysis and meta-summary. Results: Interventions were described or evaluated in 39 studies, and five studies described strategies to affect loneliness/social connectedness of older adults or their caregivers in a qualitative descriptive study. The studies were often conducted in the United States (38.6%) among community dwelling (54.5%), cognitively intact (31.8%), and female-majority (86.4%) samples. Few focused on non-white participants (4.5%). Strategies described most often were engaging in purposeful activity and maintaining contact with one’s social network. Of nine intervention types identified, the most frequently described were One-to-One Personal Contact and Group Activity. Authors held divergent views of why the same type of intervention might impact social connectedness, but social contact was the most frequently conceptualized influencing factor targeted, both within and across intervention types. Conclusions: Research to test the divergent theories of why interventions work is needed to advance understanding of intervention mechanisms. Innovative conceptualizations of intervention targets are needed, such as purposeful activity, that move beyond the current focus on the objective social network as a way to promote social connectedness for older adults.

Social isolation, loneliness and older people

SMITH Lauren
2018

A literature review on social isolation, loneliness and older people. The review provides citations and short summaries of the literature identified, covering the following themes: the community context, research around interventions, social capital, mental wellbeing, mobility and wellbeing, social inclusion and community building, digital engagement and evaluating interventions. The majority of articles included are systematic reviews and literature reviews. The review was commissioned by an alliance of older people’s forums to contribute to their response to the Scottish Government's draft strategy 'A connected Scotland: tackling social isolation and loneliness and building stronger communities'. It is not comprehensive but aims to provide links to perspectives from academic research that may be less commonly present within contributions to consultations.

What do we know about the relationship between internet-mediated interaction and social isolation and loneliness in later life?

BENEITO-MONTAGUT Roser, CASSIAN-YDE Nizaia, BEGUERIA Arantza
2018

Purpose: Social isolation and loneliness are recognised social, health and wellbeing problems that particularly affect later life. They have been the subject of many recent studies. Studies examining the role of the internet in addressing these problems have multiplied. However, it is still not known whether internet-mediated social interaction has any role in mitigating social isolation and or loneliness. To address this gap, the purpose of this paper is to review previous research that investigates the relationship between internet use for communication and social isolation and loneliness. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reviews the empirical literature published since 2000 and expands on previous literature reviews by including a variety of research designs and disciplines. Findings: Despite the recent increase in studies, there is still little evidence to show internet effects on social isolation and loneliness. It is concluded that future research programmes aimed at reducing them by the use of the internet should include more robust methodological and theoretical frameworks, employ longitudinal research designs and provide a more nuanced description of both the social phenomena (social isolation and loneliness) and internet-mediated social interaction. Originality/value: Previous reviews are not restricted to internet-based studies and include several types of interventions aiming at reducing social isolation and/or loneliness. They do not attempt to disentangle the internet effects of social isolation and loneliness.

Results 1 - 10 of 40

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News

Moving Memory

Moving Memory Practice example about how the Moving Memory Dance Theatre Company is challenging perceived notions of age and ageing.

Chatty Cafe Scheme

Chatty Cafe Scheme Practice example about how the Chatty Cafe Scheme is helping to tackle loneliness by bringing people of all ages together

Oomph! Wellness

Oomph! Wellness Practice example about how Oomph! Wellness is supporting staff to get older adults active and combat growing levels of social isolation

KOMP

KOMP Practice example about how KOMP, designed by No Isolation is helping older people stay connected with their families

LAUGH research project

LAUGH research project Practice example about a research project to develop highly personalised, playful objects for people with advanced dementia
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