An executive summary of a report commissioned by Nottinghamshire County Council to explore recent evidence and identify a set of risk factors to older people’s independence. It explores risk factors in three areas: Social and Psychosocial Domain; Long term or Personal Conditions Domain; and Life Events Domain. Risk factors are then further grouped into: modifiable risk factors such as depression or loneliness, where specific support or services can be offered to minimise their impact; and non-modifiable risk factors such as age or history of falls; which can help identify older people at greater risk and who may potentially benefit from some preventative services and support. The report identifies the following factors as being the most significant, primary risk factors to older people’s independence and institutionalisation: Dementia with co-morbidity; Co-morbidity; carer burden; falls; social isolation and loneliness; poor confidence and self-esteem; and poor perception of own health status. The report also highlights examples of preventative tools and interventions that could stop, delay or defer the need for long-term institutional care for older people. The findings will be used to inform Nottinghamshire County Council’s ongoing local development of an “early warning system”.