COVID-19 resources

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Rights and regulation post COVID-19


LaingBuisson in partnership with Bevan Brittan held a conversation about how we move to the next stage what rights do residents, employees, directors and companies have? This webinar looked at how we should handle the next potential wave of COVID-19 and what role Care Quality Commission (CQC) and the regulators should play. You can download the slide deck that goes with the webinar here: [Webinar recorded 11 June 2020].

Last updated on hub: 15 June 2020

Risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and outbreaks in long term care facilities in England: a national survey


This article is a preprint and has not been peer-reviewed. This study aimed to identify risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection and outbreaks in Long Term Care Facilities (LTCFs). It was a cross-sectional survey of all LTCFs providing dementia care or care to adults >65 years in England with linkage to SARS-CoV-2 test results. Findings: 5126/9081 (56%) LTCFs participated in the survey, with 160,033 residents and 248,594 staff. The weighted period prevalence of infection in residents and staff respectively was 10.5% (95% CI: 9.9-11.1%) and 3.8% (95%: 3.4-4.2%) and 2724 LTCFs (53.1%) had ≥1 infection. Odds of infection and/or outbreaks were reduced in LTCFs that paid sickness pay, cohorted staff, did not employ agency staff and had higher staff to resident ratios. Higher odds of infection and outbreaks were identified in facilities with more admissions, lower cleaning frequency, poor compliance with isolation and “for profit” status. Interpretation: Half of LTCFs had no cases suggesting they remain vulnerable to outbreaks. Reducing transmission from staff requires adequate sick pay, minimal use of temporary staff, improved staffing ratios and staff cohorting. Transmission from residents is associated with the number of admissions to the facility and poor compliance with isolation.

Last updated on hub: 13 November 2020

Risk factors for COVID-19 versus non-COVID-19 related in-hospital and community deaths by Local Authority District in Great Britain


This article is a preprint and has not been peer-reviewed. The lead researcher is Samuel Paul Leighton. Objectives: To undertake a preliminary hypothesis-generating analysis exploring putative risk factors for coronavirus diseae 2019 (COVID-19) population-adjusted deaths, compared with non-COVID-19 related deaths, at a local authority district (LAD) level in hospital, care homes and at home. Results: Significant risk factors for LAD COVID-19 death in comparison to non-COVID-19 related death were air pollution and proportion of the population who were female. Significant protective factors were higher air temperature and proportion of the population who were ex-smokers. Scottish local authorities and local authorities with a higher proportion of individuals of BAME origin are potential risk factors for COVID-19 related deaths in care homes and in hospitals, respectively.

Last updated on hub: 15 July 2020

Risk factors for outbreaks of COVID-19 in care homes following hospital discharge: a national cohort analysis


Background: Adult residential and nursing care homes are settings in which older and often vulnerable people live in close proximity. This population experiences a higher proportion of respiratory and gastrointestinal illnesses than the general population and has been shown to have a high morbidity and mortality in relation to COVID-19. Methods: This study examined 3,115 hospital discharges to 1,068 Welsh adult care homes and the subsequent outbreaks of COVID-19 occurring over an 18 week period between 22 February and 27 June 2020. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to assess the impact of time-dependent exposure to hospital discharge on the incidence of the first known outbreak, over a window of 7-21 days after discharge, and adjusted for care home characteristics, including size, type of provision and health board. Results: A total of 330 homes experienced an outbreak of COVID-19, and 544 homes received a discharge from hospital over the study period. The exposure to discharge from hospital was not associated with a significant increase in the risk of a new outbreak (hazard ratio 1·15, 95% CI 0·89, 1·47, p = 0·29) after adjusting for care home characteristics. Care home size was by far the most significant predictor. Hazard ratios (95% CI) in comparison to homes of <10 residents were: 3·40 (1·99, 5·80) for 10-24 residents; 8·25 (4·93, 13·81) for 25-49 residents; and 17·35 (9·65, 31·19) for homes of 50+ residents. When stratified for care home size, the outbreak rates were similar for periods when homes were exposed to a hospital discharge, in comparison to periods when homes were unexposed. Conclusion: The analyses showed that large homes were at considerably greater risk of outbreaks throughout the epidemic, and after adjusting for care home size, a discharge from hospital was not associated with a significant increase in risk.

Last updated on hub: 20 February 2021

Risk factors for social isolation among older adults in long term care: a scoping review

Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

Objectives: A wealth of literature has established risk factors for social isolation among older people, however much of this research has focused on community-dwelling populations. Relatively little is known about how risk of social isolation is experienced among those living in long-term care (LTC) homes. We conducted a scoping review to identify possible risk factors for social isolation among older adults living in LTC homes. Methods: A systematic search of five online databases retrieved 1535 unique articles. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Results: Thematic analyses revealed that possible risk factors exist at three levels: individual (e.g., communication barriers), systems (e.g., location of LTC facility), and structural factors (e.g., discrimination). Discussion: Our review identified several risk factors for social isolation that have been previously documented in literature, in addition to several risks that may be unique to those living in LTC homes. Results highlight several scholarly and practical implications [Note: this is a preprint, not peer-reviewed]

Last updated on hub: 28 January 2021

Risk identification and virtual interventions for social workers

Social Care Institute for Excellence

This quick guide will help social workers and practitioners understand how to gather evidence to be able to identify and assess risks normally gathered through observation.

Last updated on hub: 11 November 2020

Rituals in the time of COVID‐19: imagination, responsiveness, and the human spirit

Family Process

Following the format put forth by Imber‐Black and Roberts, this paper examines daily rituals, family traditions, holidays, and life cycle rituals during the pandemic of COVID‐19. Marked by symbols capable of carrying multiple meanings, symbolic actions, special time and special place, and newly invented and adapted rituals are illustrated through stories of couples, families, and communities.

Last updated on hub: 14 October 2020

Roadmap for frontline professionals interacting with male perpetrators of domestic violence and abuse

The roadmap set out in this report aims to assist frontline professionals in health care or social services, child protection services, police, and others, coming into contact with male service users who are violent or abusive to their female partners. Working with these men to change their behaviour is a key step towards preventing domestic violence. The contents of the roadmap are based on a review of the relevant literature and input from frontline professionals, male perpetrators and experts working with perpetrators who agreed to take part in focus groups or interviews in three European countries (France, Italy, Spain) as part of the ENGAGE project. The roadmap consists of introductory chapters to set the stage for engaging perpetrators, covering definitions and consequences of violence and abuse; accountability and victim safety; and beliefs towards men who use domestic violence. A flowchart then introduces the four steps to engage and refer perpetrators: step 1 – identifying domestic violence and abuse in men; step 2 – asking men about domestic violence and abuse; step 3 – motivating men for referral; and step 4 – referring men to perpetrator programmes within a coordinated multi-agency response. A subsequent chapter deals with professional, personal and legal dilemmas professionals might encounter in this work. The last chapter summarises 12 do’s and don’ts when engaging with a perpetrator. The references and an extensive annex of tools and resources complete the roadmap.

Last updated on hub: 15 July 2020

Robotics in care: a moment of opportunity: how robotic technology can transform global social care delivery

PA Consulting Group

This report explores how robotic technology offers an opportunity to transform social care in the wake of COVID-19. The pandemic has raised the prominence of technology in care, meaning many workers now have direct experience of how it can help them do their jobs better, faster and with reduced risk. The report argues that now is the time to rethink and reset traditional care service delivery and leaders must adopt a bolder, more ambitious approach to trialling and deploying robotic technologies to help meet the social care needs of vulnerable residents beyond the crisis. The range of technologies available to leaders includes: collaborative robots (‘cobots’) – designed to be used in conjunction with human; semi-humanoid robots – smart robots with human-like characteristics to facilitate social interaction with people living with dementia or Asperger’s; robotic animals – which can serve as companions to people living with dementia or learning disabilities; digital assistants – voice-controlled devices and services that support people with care needs at home; medicine robots – automated medicine dispensers; and automated call services – to check on vulnerable people, helping local authorities remain in touch and respond sooner when a need emerges. The report describes three practical steps leaders can take to capitalise on robotic technology in earnest: define your strategy based on human outcomes; trial technologies with the aim of deploying at scale; and collaborate with the wider social care ecosystem.

Last updated on hub: 05 October 2020

Roma children’s participation: shaping responses to COVID-19 in the EU and Bulgaria

University of Central Lancashire

This policy paper presents research on the impact of COVID-19 of Roma children, including in the UK, and the barriers to their health and wellbeing and the potential of participatory responses. The findings are set in the current context of child poverty and related EU initiatives on poverty and participation. The findings show consistent patterns of challenging conditions experienced by some young Roma and their communities in relation to lack of essentials for basic health and income; wellbeing and education; discrimination and participation. Lessons to learned are highlighted and priority actions are recommended, including: improve supported and ethical mechanisms for hearing and responding to children’s views so that children share their opinions; community involvement in advocacy work; improvement of community-based services in terms of planning and service delivery; and improvement of intersectoral collaboration so that social, educational and health measures towards children and families are in line with specific needs and development opportunities in family context of the child.

Last updated on hub: 14 July 2020

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