COVID-19 resources

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Rethinking the transformative role of the social work profession in Albania: some lessons learned from the response to COVID-19

International Social Work

This article provides an overview of the social work response to COVID-19 in Albania. After introducing the country situation, the authors discuss social workers’ engagement in governmental and non-governmental agencies and provide suggestions for advancing the social work profession. The authors call for greater engagement of social workers in political spaces.

Last updated on hub: 17 September 2020

Returning to school: children and young people living with chronic illness

Journal of Children's Services

Purpose: The reopening of schools during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is full of challenges for families, which are heightened for children and young people (CYP) who live with chronic illnesses. This paper aims to offer a framework to support the successful return of CYP with chronic illnesses to school using appropriate intersectoral strategies. Design/methodology/approach: This paper draws on research data on the impact of school closure on CYP with chronic illness and emerging findings of global research about their lives during the pandemic. It is also informed by the perspectives of practitioners in the field, who are working with these CYP and their families. Findings: A framework based on three different strategies for a successful return is established. A small but significant group of CYP living with conditions such as cancer will not yet return and will need ongoing home education provision. CYP with well-controlled symptoms of chronic illness will benefit from school routines and socialization with peers. CYP with poorly controlled illness will need close supervision and individual plans. All groups will benefit from better intersectoral working across education and health and from recent rapid developments in hybrid learning models and telemedicine. Originality/value: This viewpoint highlights the need for a strategic approach to the return to school of CYP with chronic illness that goes well beyond classifying them as vulnerable students. This group of CYP is already at risk of lower educational attainment, so widening inequalities must be halted. This paper provides a framework for anchoring local intersectoral approaches adapted to the different situations of CYP.

Last updated on hub: 30 December 2020

Review of Do Not Attempt Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation decisions during the COVID-19 pandemic: interim report

Care Quality Commission

This interim report sets out the progress of a review of Do Not Attempt Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (DNACPR) decisions taken during the COVID-19 pandemic and expectations around DNACPR. The review found that there was confusion and miscommunication about the application of DNACPRs at the start of the pandemic, and a sense of providers being overwhelmed. There is evidence of unacceptable and inappropriate DNACPRs being made at the start of the pandemic. However, there was a quick response from multiple agencies to highlight the issue and since then, there is no evidence to suggest that it has continued as a widespread problem; there are, however, differing views on the extent to which people are now experiencing positive person-centred care and support in relation to this issue. It is possible that in some cases inappropriate DNACPRs remain in place. The CQC expects all care providers to assure themselves that any DNACPR decisions have been made appropriately, in discussion with the person and in line with legal requirements and best practice. It also expects all providers and local systems to ensure that any discussions about DNACPR happen as part of person-centred advance care planning, and in accordance with legal requirements.

Last updated on hub: 20 January 2021

Review of the impact of mass disruption on the wellbeing and mental health of children and young people, and possible therapeutic interventions

Welsh Government

This rapid evidence assessment explores the available literature on the impact of disasters on the wellbeing and mental health of school aged children and young people (3 to 18 years) and possible therapeutic interventions. The literature review focused on finding out about children and young people’s wellbeing and mental health as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as previous international disasters, in order to understand the current and anticipated impacts of COVID-19. Risk and protective factors for children’s post-disaster mental health were explored for COVID-19 and international disasters that caused mass disruption. International research reveals that the pandemic and isolation through home confinement has changed children’s behaviour. An increase in symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as greater behaviour difficulties and worries, have been found. However, some studies also found positive outcomes such as more prosocial behaviour and reflection. Similarly, UK COVID-19 research has suggested that the pandemic is adversely affecting the mental health of children and young people. Risk factors for greater problems in children included older age, level of exposure, experiencing isolation, parents’ wellbeing and mental health, and children’s pre-existing mental health. Protective factors that can reduce children and young people’s post-disaster mental health have been found to include well-developed cognitive skills and coping strategies. Community solidarity and social support from parents and peers were also found to be protective. Interventions were often whole school approaches to mental health, and were shown to be successful. Other interventions such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy were found to reduce post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in children and young people.

Last updated on hub: 15 September 2020



This website is for families or close friends having problems visiting a loved one who is autistic and/or has learning disabilities. Visits are being limited or stopped because of COVID-19.

Last updated on hub: 19 October 2020

Rights and regulation post COVID-19


LaingBuisson in partnership with Bevan Brittan held a conversation about how we move to the next stage what rights do residents, employees, directors and companies have? This webinar looked at how we should handle the next potential wave of COVID-19 and what role Care Quality Commission (CQC) and the regulators should play. You can download the slide deck that goes with the webinar here: [Webinar recorded 11 June 2020].

Last updated on hub: 15 June 2020

Risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and outbreaks in long term care facilities in England: a national survey


This article is a preprint and has not been peer-reviewed. This study aimed to identify risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection and outbreaks in Long Term Care Facilities (LTCFs). It was a cross-sectional survey of all LTCFs providing dementia care or care to adults >65 years in England with linkage to SARS-CoV-2 test results. Findings: 5126/9081 (56%) LTCFs participated in the survey, with 160,033 residents and 248,594 staff. The weighted period prevalence of infection in residents and staff respectively was 10.5% (95% CI: 9.9-11.1%) and 3.8% (95%: 3.4-4.2%) and 2724 LTCFs (53.1%) had ≥1 infection. Odds of infection and/or outbreaks were reduced in LTCFs that paid sickness pay, cohorted staff, did not employ agency staff and had higher staff to resident ratios. Higher odds of infection and outbreaks were identified in facilities with more admissions, lower cleaning frequency, poor compliance with isolation and “for profit” status. Interpretation: Half of LTCFs had no cases suggesting they remain vulnerable to outbreaks. Reducing transmission from staff requires adequate sick pay, minimal use of temporary staff, improved staffing ratios and staff cohorting. Transmission from residents is associated with the number of admissions to the facility and poor compliance with isolation.

Last updated on hub: 13 November 2020

Risk factors for COVID-19 versus non-COVID-19 related in-hospital and community deaths by Local Authority District in Great Britain


This article is a preprint and has not been peer-reviewed. The lead researcher is Samuel Paul Leighton. Objectives: To undertake a preliminary hypothesis-generating analysis exploring putative risk factors for coronavirus diseae 2019 (COVID-19) population-adjusted deaths, compared with non-COVID-19 related deaths, at a local authority district (LAD) level in hospital, care homes and at home. Results: Significant risk factors for LAD COVID-19 death in comparison to non-COVID-19 related death were air pollution and proportion of the population who were female. Significant protective factors were higher air temperature and proportion of the population who were ex-smokers. Scottish local authorities and local authorities with a higher proportion of individuals of BAME origin are potential risk factors for COVID-19 related deaths in care homes and in hospitals, respectively.

Last updated on hub: 15 July 2020

Risk factors for outbreaks of COVID-19 in care homes following hospital discharge: a national cohort analysis


Background: Adult residential and nursing care homes are settings in which older and often vulnerable people live in close proximity. This population experiences a higher proportion of respiratory and gastrointestinal illnesses than the general population and has been shown to have a high morbidity and mortality in relation to COVID-19. Methods: This study examined 3,115 hospital discharges to 1,068 Welsh adult care homes and the subsequent outbreaks of COVID-19 occurring over an 18 week period between 22 February and 27 June 2020. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to assess the impact of time-dependent exposure to hospital discharge on the incidence of the first known outbreak, over a window of 7-21 days after discharge, and adjusted for care home characteristics, including size, type of provision and health board. Results: A total of 330 homes experienced an outbreak of COVID-19, and 544 homes received a discharge from hospital over the study period. The exposure to discharge from hospital was not associated with a significant increase in the risk of a new outbreak (hazard ratio 1·15, 95% CI 0·89, 1·47, p = 0·29) after adjusting for care home characteristics. Care home size was by far the most significant predictor. Hazard ratios (95% CI) in comparison to homes of <10 residents were: 3·40 (1·99, 5·80) for 10-24 residents; 8·25 (4·93, 13·81) for 25-49 residents; and 17·35 (9·65, 31·19) for homes of 50+ residents. When stratified for care home size, the outbreak rates were similar for periods when homes were exposed to a hospital discharge, in comparison to periods when homes were unexposed. Conclusion: The analyses showed that large homes were at considerably greater risk of outbreaks throughout the epidemic, and after adjusting for care home size, a discharge from hospital was not associated with a significant increase in risk.

Last updated on hub: 20 February 2021

Risk factors for social isolation among older adults in long term care: a scoping review

Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

Objectives: A wealth of literature has established risk factors for social isolation among older people, however much of this research has focused on community-dwelling populations. Relatively little is known about how risk of social isolation is experienced among those living in long-term care (LTC) homes. We conducted a scoping review to identify possible risk factors for social isolation among older adults living in LTC homes. Methods: A systematic search of five online databases retrieved 1535 unique articles. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Results: Thematic analyses revealed that possible risk factors exist at three levels: individual (e.g., communication barriers), systems (e.g., location of LTC facility), and structural factors (e.g., discrimination). Discussion: Our review identified several risk factors for social isolation that have been previously documented in literature, in addition to several risks that may be unique to those living in LTC homes. Results highlight several scholarly and practical implications [Note: this is a preprint, not peer-reviewed]

Last updated on hub: 28 January 2021

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