COVID-19 resources

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Virtual sport-based positive youth development during the COVID-19 pandemic

Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal

Sport is a foundational context for social, emotional, physical, and psychological development. The COVID-19 pandemic displaced many youth from their normative sport activities. As a result, sport-based positive-youth development (PYD) programs, typically delivered in person, had to reimagine ways to reach and engage youth in sport and life skill development. In fall 2020, The Los Angeles Football Club Youth Leadership Program (LAFC YLP) developed seven virtual sport-based PYD videos and one workshop for 120 socially vulnerable youth and their families. All virtual activities were designed to teach life skills through sport and play. Our study sought to explore the accessibility of the virtual sport-based PYD activities, the lived experiences of youth participants during lockdown, and learning outcomes of youth and families who participated in the program. We developed a mixed methods study using an online survey and virtual platform to allow youth to share photos, draw pictures, and leave comments about their lived experiences. Our findings indicated 53 youth and their families participated in the virtual sport-based PYD program and reported the activities were accessible, enjoyable, and challenging for the youth participants. In addition, 26 youth shared photos, images, or posts about their lived experiences. Our thematic analysis of the photos, images, and posts indicated the virtual sport-based PYD activities facilitated positive emotional responses, positive peer interaction, engagement with family, and utilization of environmental resources during the COVID-19 pandemic. Importantly, our findings also suggest virtual sport-based PYD activities may facilitate life skill transfer; an important developmental mechanism for learning in lieu of the decreased opportunities for sport and social interaction during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Last updated on hub: 12 August 2021

Visiting and the law: a guide for care homes during COVID-19

The Relatives & Residents Association

This guide provides a summary of the current Government guidance on visiting inside care homes in England and the relevant legal duties on care providers. It provides an overview of the legal duties on care providers relevant to visiting, including the Care Act, Mental Capacity Act and Human Rights Act. Aiming to be practical, accessible and user-friendly, the guide also contains worked examples and pointer questions. The guide is not legal advice, but we hope it will help care homes to explore their visiting policies and practice, to help respect and protect the rights of residents.

Last updated on hub: 23 August 2021

Visiting arrangements in care homes

Alzheimer's Society

This briefing sets out the key considerations Directors of Public Health should take into account in supporting care homes to reopen for people living with dementia during the Covid-19 crisis. It argues that the balance of risks between allowing visits and preventing the spread of infection must take account of what can be a permanent decline in abilities that social isolation can bring to people with dementia. In their risk assessments, local authorities must fully consider the particular needs of people affected by dementia and put in place appropriate steps to reopen care homes to visitors and offer them the support they need to so safely.

Last updated on hub: 10 August 2020

Visiting care homes during COVID-19

Department of Health and Social Care

Guidance for making arrangements for limited visits to care homes, aimed at care providers and directors of public health. Visiting policies and decisions must aim to minimise the risk of coronavirus (COVID-19) transmission wherever possible, taking into account the circumstances of the individual care home (for example, its employee availability, resident demographics and outbreak status); and its local circumstances (local epidemiological risk, presence of outbreaks in the community). The guide sets out the principles of a local approach to visiting arrangements and dynamic risk assessment; guidance for providers establishing their visiting policy; guidance for providers taking decisions on visiting for particular residents or groups of residents; infection control precautions; communicating with relatives and others about the visiting policy and visiting decisions. [Published 22 July 2020; Last updated 12 January 2021]

Last updated on hub: 23 July 2020

Visitor restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic: an ethical case study

Nursing Ethics

To prevent and reduce the transmission of the coronavirus to vulnerable populations, the World Health Organization recommended the restriction of visitors to nursing homes. It was recognised that such restrictions could have profound impact on residents and their families. Nonetheless, these measures were strictly imposed over a prolonged period in many countries; impeding families from remaining involved in their relatives’ care and diluting the meaningful connections for residents with society. It is timely to explore the impact of public health measures on people living in nursing homes from an ethical perspective. In order to foreground the ethical dimensions of the implications of visitor restrictions in nursing homes, the researchers compiled an ethical case that reflects some recent experiences of nursing homes residents and their families, in the Irish Republic. This paper describes a series of events encountered by a woman and her family during the first wave of the pandemic in 2020 and we deploy an ethical decision-making tool to guide and structure the analysis. This case analysis draws attention to ethical principles that are relevant to explicating the ethical duties and obligations that arise in relation to the interests, well-being, and safety of residents and their families, as well as nursing home staff and the wider community during a pandemic. These include the right of autonomy, trust, minimising harm, and proportionality. This paper concludes that a number of different strategies should be adopted by nursing homes and relevant regulatory bodies. This includes honest, regular communication between the nursing home staff, the resident and their family. Central to communications is the resident’s wishes, their current clinical status and the all-important wider public health obligations. National strategies include mass vaccination, the timely provision of guidance documents and interventions from regulatory bodies that are patient-centred, adaptable, and cost effective.

Last updated on hub: 02 July 2021

Visits out of care homes

Department of Health and Social Care

This document sets out how care homes can support residents of working age on visits outside of the care home. Outward visits are an important part of life for many in residential care. However, spending time with others outside the care home will increase risk of exposure to COVID for the resident and potentially to other vulnerable residents on their return. These risks are usually significantly greater for older people than for those of working age. As such, visits out of care homes should only be considered for care home residents of working age. Care homes should, however, support visits out for older people in exceptional circumstances, such as to visit a friend or relative at the end of their life. This guidance explains how visits out of a care home can take place; the role of the provider in supporting outward visiting; and the need for individual risk assessments.[First published 1 December 2020; Updated 14 May 2021 - supplementary guidance summary (from 4 May 2021) about visits out of care homes to spend time outdoors added. Last updated: 17 August 2021]

Last updated on hub: 03 December 2020

Visits to care homes: guidance for providers

Welsh Government

This guidance provides advice for care home providers on facilitating outdoor visits; indoor visits when the level of COVID-19 at a local or national level allows; indoor visits in exceptional circumstances including end of life; and people going out into the community and visiting family and friends. The guidance sets out an ethical framework to support people living and staying in care homes to reconnect safely with families, friends and professionals, consistent with the requirements of the wider coronavirus restrictions. The ultimate decision on whether, and in what circumstances care home visits take place rests with the individual provider, and some providers will find it more challenging to facilitate visits than others. However, this guidance is intended to support providers to enable visits to take place, and providers are expected and encouraged to facilitate visits wherever possible. [First published:25 June 2020; Last updated: 23 April 2021]

Last updated on hub: 08 September 2020

Vivaldi 2: coronavirus (COVID-19) new variant (B.1.1.7) in care homes study report

Department of Health and Social Care

The Vivaldi study, led by University College London, was set up in June 2020 to investigate SARS-CoV-2 transmission, infection outcomes and immunity in residents and staff in care homes in England. This report shows that he proportion of infections in care home staff and residents caused by the variant B.1.1.7 rose from 12% in the week beginning 23 November to 60% of positive cases just 2 weeks later, in the week beginning 7 December – with the B.1.1.7 variant spreading fastest in London during this period.

Last updated on hub: 11 May 2021

Vivaldi 2: COVID-19 care homes study report

Department of Health and Social Care

This study sets out the results of the second round of whole-home testing for care homes for the over 65s undertaken between 8 December 2020 and 15 March 2021. The study compared vaccinated and unvaccinated care home residents in England by using routine asymptomatic Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Of 10,412 residents, 9,160 were vaccinated with either the Oxford-AstraZeneca or Pfizer vaccines, and PCR test results were used to compare the number of infections occurring in vaccinated and unvaccinated groups in order to estimate the effects of a first vaccine dose. The first vaccine dose was associated with substantially reduced SARS-CoV-2 infection risk in care home residents from 4 weeks to at least 7 weeks. It also infers that the vaccines protect against the highly transmissible UK variant, as this was prevalent during the study period and analysis of lab samples suggests that care home residents who are infected after having the vaccine may also be less likely to transmit the virus.

Last updated on hub: 20 April 2021

Vivaldi 2: COVID-19 reinfection in care homes study report

Department of Health and Social Care

The Vivaldi study, led by University College London, was set up in June 2020 to investigate SARS-CoV-2 transmission, infection outcomes, and immunity in residents and staff in care homes in England. Between 1 October 2020 and 1 February 2021 the study considered the number of people in an adult-social care home setting who had previously been infected with COVID-19 (confirmed by antibody testing), who then tested positive for virus with a PCR test more than 90 days later. The sample size of the study was 682 residents and 1,429 members of staff. The data shows a positive picture of the degree of natural immunity from COVID-19 amongst staff and residents in care homes in England, which suggests the risk of being infected twice from this virus is low.

Last updated on hub: 11 May 2021

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