COVID-19 resources on Infection control

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Restructuring paradigm in the wake of COVID-19: a study of Kerala model

Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment

The novel coronavirus that shook the world population has restructured the world order. While the scientists are grappling hard to find a solution to the imminent problem at hand, the pandemic has thrown the human race into a perplexed stage questioning and mostly changing everything they believed in. The pandemic has replaced human beings as social animal to virtual being. The social distancing mandate required for the survival as propounded by WHO has forced individuals to keep the other humans at bay. The present paper is an attempt to look at the changes the world is facing with respect to the social, cultural, economic, and psychological aspects with a special focus on the internationally acclaimed Kerala model of survival. Kerala, a small state located within the southern peninsula of the country has played an important role in containing the spread of the virus despite its larger population density. The paper focuses on the innovative mechanics followed by the state to curtail the spreading. It also attempts to look at the changes that have been brought in the general human behavior.

Last updated on hub: 22 April 2021

Retirement village and extra care housing in England: operators’ experience during the COVID-19 pandemic

St Monica Trust

This study explores how Covid-19 affected the housing-with-care operators, their staff and residents; how operators responded to the pandemic; their innovations and successes and the key ongoing challenges. The study sought information and insight via an online questionnaire survey, with a sampling frame provided by the Elderly Accommodation Counsel (EAC) and administered by the Housing Learning and Improvement Network (HLIN). The efficacy of retirement village (RV) and extra care housing (ECH) operators’ response to the pandemic is evident from the positive feedback and overall positive experiences of residents, and the level of protection afforded to them; resident COVID-19 death rates were lower than expected when compared to people of similar ages residing in the wider community. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has exerted a huge strain on operators. In common with care homes, many of the major operational pressures and challenges they faced related to anxiety, stress, numbers of staff off work self-isolating or shielding, staff burnout, staff shortages, managing expectations, lack of availability of PPE, and striving to protect health and well-being. The costs and losses incurred due to the pandemic have far outweighed any savings or funding received, and many costs are still on-going. Successful measures shared by operators focused on having a framework of emergency command, plans, processes, procedures and templates ready in place. Highlighted as being especially important were implementing comprehensive risk assessments, ensuring access to PPE, and the means for effective communication to all stakeholders (particularly residents, their relatives and staff). Consultation was considered very beneficial for keeping people included in the decision-making, up to date and on board with changes. There are major concerns for operators going forward regarding resident and staff well-being, loss of revenue and other financial pressures, especially if further lockdowns ensue.

Last updated on hub: 03 May 2021



This website is for families or close friends having problems visiting a loved one who is autistic and/or has learning disabilities. Visits are being limited or stopped because of COVID-19.

Last updated on hub: 19 October 2020

Risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and outbreaks in long term care facilities in England: a national survey


This article is a preprint and has not been peer-reviewed. This study aimed to identify risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection and outbreaks in Long Term Care Facilities (LTCFs). It was a cross-sectional survey of all LTCFs providing dementia care or care to adults >65 years in England with linkage to SARS-CoV-2 test results. Findings: 5126/9081 (56%) LTCFs participated in the survey, with 160,033 residents and 248,594 staff. The weighted period prevalence of infection in residents and staff respectively was 10.5% (95% CI: 9.9-11.1%) and 3.8% (95%: 3.4-4.2%) and 2724 LTCFs (53.1%) had ≥1 infection. Odds of infection and/or outbreaks were reduced in LTCFs that paid sickness pay, cohorted staff, did not employ agency staff and had higher staff to resident ratios. Higher odds of infection and outbreaks were identified in facilities with more admissions, lower cleaning frequency, poor compliance with isolation and “for profit” status. Interpretation: Half of LTCFs had no cases suggesting they remain vulnerable to outbreaks. Reducing transmission from staff requires adequate sick pay, minimal use of temporary staff, improved staffing ratios and staff cohorting. Transmission from residents is associated with the number of admissions to the facility and poor compliance with isolation.

Last updated on hub: 13 November 2020

Safe working in education, childcare and children’s social care settings, including the use of personal protective equipment (PPE)

Department for Education

This guidance applies to staff working in education, childcare and children’s social care settings in England; children, young people and learners who attend these settings; and their parents or carers. It explains the strategy for infection prevention and control, including the specific circumstances PPE should be used, to enable safe working during the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. The guidance also looks at the specific steps that should be taken in children’s homes, including secure children’s homes; in foster care settings; when dealing with young children or children with special educational needs; when providing social care visits to extremely clinically vulnerable children and young people. [Published 14 May 2020. Last updated 15 July 2021]

Last updated on hub: 25 June 2020

Safe, happy and together: design ideas for minimising the spread of infection whilst nurturing social interaction in later living communities

Housing LIN

This report outlines a series of practical design recommendations to control the transmission of coronavirus, and other everyday infections, in later-living housing whilst maintaining social interaction for residents. Later living, in this paper, refers to residential accommodation consisting of self-contained apartments with associated communal, support and ancillary spaces under one roof. The document is intended to be a practical guide for designers, operators and developers refurbishing ageing later-living housing projects or considering new ones. It identifies thirteen specific areas that would require improvements in order to safeguard the mental and physical health of residents, and to enable staff to manage additional tasks that might be required of them during a pandemic. Key recommendations include creating a separate entrance for staff and deliveries, additional storage for PPE, ventilators, sanitation equipment at all entrances and installing a traffic light system in the lobby to control movement in and out of the building or a ‘pop-up’ shelter in the entrance courtyard for supervised visits.

Last updated on hub: 28 July 2020

Safeguarding adults practice and remote working in the COVID-19 era: challenges and opportunities

Journal of Adult Protection

Purpose: This exploratory paper aims to examine the literature on the impact of COVID-19 on safeguarding adults practice. Design/methodology/approach: A literature search was carried out in recently published articles to locate literature relating to COVID-19 and safeguarding adults in the UK and internationally. This included policy guidance and law, to describe the existing knowledge base, gaps in practice and areas that may require further research. Findings: The findings suggest that measures to curb the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic gave rise to remote working and virtual safeguarding practice. The findings highlight the need for empirical research into the impact of virtual safeguarding adults assessments and effective ways to support the needs and outcomes of those who may be at risk of or experiencing abuse and neglect while shielding, socially isolating or when working in an environment where social distancing is required. Research limitations/implications: The paper is based on a review and analysis of published documents and not on other types of research. Originality/value: Little is known about effective safeguarding adults practice in the era of shielding, self-isolation, social distancing and remote working. The paper adds to the body of knowledge in the field.

Last updated on hub: 09 December 2020

Self-test for adult social care services: detailed rapid lateral flow test guide

Department of Health and Social Care

This guide explains how adult social care staff should test themselves using a rapid lateral flow test for coronavirus (COVID-19), and report the results to the NHS. The COVID-19 self-test kit is a swab test (nose and throat) to check if you have coronavirus (COVID-19). You can use this self-test kit if you are asymptomatic (you do not have symptoms). It explains how to prepare the test area and check the test kit contents; set up the test; take the swab sample; process the swab sample; read the result; report the result; and safely dispose of the test kit. [Published: 24 March 2021; Last updated: 5 July 2021]

Last updated on hub: 30 June 2021

Severe mental illness and Covid-19: service support and digital solutions

Rethink Mental Illness

This briefing shares insights on service support for people with mental illness and digital solutions during the pandemic, drawing on online research with service users, as well as information from services. The paper sets out some of the challenges people severely affected by mental illness have faced during the pandemic and poses questions and suggestions on how they could be addressed, and how services can adapt to this new environment. It shows that service users are struggling with the delivery of remote services, or have seen a drop off in the level of support they have received. A concerning number have received no support at all. The briefing makes a series of recommendations on change to delivery of services and digital solutions: policy solutions for digitally excluded people are urgently required and should be a priority for NHS England and the government; as lockdown restrictions are lifted, digital and telephone consultations should continue to be provided, but only as an enhancement of options for service users who prefer this method; service users must be involved in designing and delivering mental health services during and post-pandemic.

Last updated on hub: 06 July 2020

Social Care Sector COVID-19 Support Taskforce: BAME Communities Advisory: report and recommendations

Department of Health and Social Care

This is the report of the BAME Communities Advisory Group (AG), established to make recommendations to feed into the work of the Social Care Sector COVID -19 Support Taskforce. It includes a summary literature review and selections of findings from consultations that the AG has drawn upon to make its recommendations. Part 2, is an appendix, containing the other material that informed the work of the AG. The methodology for developing the recommendations in this report comprised: a rapid literature review (UK Civil Service, 2014) to scope overall thematic issues and appraise existing research on the employment experiences of BAME professionals; an online survey of BAME professionals and service users and carers; two virtual consultations on Zoom of BAME service users and carers and professionals, using the focus group method; and key informant interviews of leaders of social care organisations and faith groups. The report make ten recommendations, including that that people with lived experience should be at the forefront of developing social care policy and guidance that affects BAME communities; and that there should be parity between staff working in the NHS and social care in research, the design, development and delivery of programmes that support BAME staff through this and future pandemics

Last updated on hub: 21 September 2020

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