COVID-19 resources on Infection control

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Supporting wellbeing of older people when shielding / isolating

Public Health Wales Observatory

This summary outlines action that the evidence suggests may help to support the mental wellbeing of older adults at this time. It is intended for organisations involved in supporting older people. Four systematic reviews were identified from a search of the literature conducted in June 2019. Most provided data from qualitative research and captured the perceptions of older people on quality of life, meaningful occupations and experience of technology. Reflecting on the findings from these reviews, the analysis suggests a number of actions for consideration by those involved in supporting older people. These actions focus on: maintaining autonomy and control; occupation and social interaction; access to the internet; and money and resources.

Last updated on hub: 16 November 2020

Surviving COVID-19: social work issues in a global pandemic (Child protection and welfare, and social care)

University of Stirling

This briefing provides advice for social workers working with children and families during this coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The briefing covers what is COVID-19 and its symptoms; what steps do World Health Organisation (WHO) and national and local health advisors advocate people follow in preparedness, mitigation and suppression strategies; how can social workers work with children and families during this pandemic; and how can social workers take care of themselves and others while performing their statutory duties. The briefing also covers how to uphold anti-oppressive practice, ethical behaviour and human rights, home visits and personal protection and protective equipment.

Last updated on hub: 15 June 2020

System approach to tackling COVID-19 in the care sector

Nottinghamshire County Council

Nottinghamshire County Council have worked rapidly to put in place a range of policies and support measures to support the Care Sector across Nottinghamshire. This includes working together to ensure a shared view of service capacity and pressures, and enabling urgent deliveries of personal protective equipment (PPE). Contact was made at an early stage to support people who receive a Direct Payment and those who work as a Personal Assistant have in place emergency plans and can access PPE. The full case study can be found in the Department for Health and Social Care action plan which is linked to this item and was published on 15 April 2020.

Last updated on hub: 31 March 2021

Taking extra care in lockdown: Ty Llwynderw Extra Care & Care and Cae’r Ysgol Independent Living bungalows, Maesteg

Housing LIN

This case study features Linc Cymru Housing Association’s development in Maesteg, Wales. It provides some context on why and how the scheme came about, reflects on its’ design and also captures how the scheme has coped under lockdown, successfully ensuring a Covid-free home to date. Flexing the design to respond to Coronavirus have in the main ensured that they functioned and adapted well for both the Maesteg and Tondu schemes. Operationally, staff were able to make changes so as to be able to use the building to best effect during the intense Covid-19 lockdown.

Last updated on hub: 17 September 2020

Technical Advisory Group: updated consensus statement on recommended testing criteria for discharge of asymptomatic patients to care homes

Welsh Government

Currently a negative RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 is required before a patient can be discharged from hospital to a care home. This paper examines, in the light of emerging knowledge of infectivity, whether an alternative testing strategy may be more appropriate. It recommends that patients that have had COVID-19 during admission but who have had resolution of fever for at least three days and clinical improvement of symptoms other than fever, and are to be discharged from hospital to a care home or other step down care can be assumed to be non-infectious if 20 days have elapsed since onset of symptoms, or first positive SARS-CoV-2 test; or 14 days have elapsed since onset of symptoms, or first positive SARS-CoV-2 test and an RT-PCR test is negative or ‘low positive’ with a Ct value ≥35. For patients with severe immunocompromised, there should be individualised discussion and assessment between clinical and microbiology teams. If these criteria are fulfilled, residents who have had COVID-19 during hospital admission would not require isolation when discharged to a care home or other stepdown facility. Residents who had not had evidence of COVID-19 infection during admission to hospital would still need to self-isolate for 14 days following discharge.

Last updated on hub: 22 December 2020

Testing and vaccination to reduce the impact of COVID-19 in nursing homes: an agent-based approach


Background Efforts to protect residents in nursing homes involve non-pharmaceutical interventions, testing, and vaccine. This study sought to quantify the effect of testing and vaccine strategies on the attack rate, length of the epidemic, and hospitalization. Methods This study developed an agent-based model to simulate the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in a nursing home with resident and staff agents. Interactions between 172 residents and 170 staff were assumed based on data from a nursing home in Los Angeles, CA. This study simulated scenarios assuming different levels of non-pharmaceutical interventions, testing frequencies, and vaccine efficacy to block transmission. Results Under the hypothetical scenario of widespread SARS-CoV-2 in the community, 3-day testing frequency minimized the attack rate and the time to eradicate an outbreak. Prioritization of vaccine among staff or staff and residents minimized the cumulative number of infections and hospitalization, particularly in the scenario of high probability of an introduction. Reducing the probability of a virus introduction reduced the demand on testing and vaccine to reduce infections and hospitalizations. Conclusions Improving frequency of testing from 7-days to 3-days minimized the number of infections and hospitalizations, despite widespread community transmission. Vaccine prioritization of staff provides the best protection strategy, despite high risk of a virus introduction.

Last updated on hub: 06 May 2021

Testing guidelines for nursing homes: interim SARS-CoV-2 testing guidelines for nursing home residents and healthcare personnel

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

This document provides guidance on the appropriate use of testing among nursing home residents. It covers: testing residents with signs or symptoms of COVID-19; testing asymptomatic residents with known or suspected exposure to an individual infected with; testing of asymptomatic residents without known or suspected exposure to an individual infected with; and Testing to determine resolution of infection.

Last updated on hub: 26 October 2020

Testing service for extra care and supported living settings

Department of Health and Social Care

Guidance on regular retesting for extra care and supported living settings that meet the eligibility criteria. NHS Test and Trace is making regular COVID-19 testing available to eligible extra care and supported living settings in England. In order to be eligible for testing, extra care and supported living settings must meet both of the following criteria: a closed community with substantial facilities shared between multiple people; where most residents receive the kind of personal care that is CQC regulated (rather than help with cooking, cleaning and shopping). This guidance covers: why testing is important; what to do if you have an outbreak; the end-to-end testing process; unique organisation number; preparing your setting; registering completed tests; returning test kits; results; where to go for support; step-by-step guide for registering a test kit after completing a test.[Published 7 December 2020; Last updated 22 April 2021]

Last updated on hub: 08 December 2020

The 12-month stretch: where the Government has delivered – and where it has failed – during the Covid-19 crisis

Resolution Foundation

This note explores the past 12 months of the pandemic through the health crisis, the economic crisis, and their impact on households’ ability to cope financially. It takes a step back, considering the big picture of what policy makers have done, how well they have done it, and where it’s left people, both in terms of health and economic outcomes. We find that the past year has been marked by big successes on income support and vaccines, but repeated failures on lockdown that have cost lives and deepened the economic crisis, and left a legacy of inequality that needs to be addressed in the recovery. Key findings: the UK was the first country to start a clinically-approved vaccination programme, and is delivering jabs three times faster than Europe; over £186 billion in emergency Covid-19 support has directly supported households and firms – via the furlough scheme, benefits uplift and grants for companies and the self-employed; delaying the start of the latest lockdown until January, despite evidence of fast rising cases, is estimated to have led to around an extra 27,000 Covid-related deaths compared to a situation in which restrictions were put in place quickly enough to prevent the death rate rising from early December levels; poorer households have borne the brunt of the health and economic crises – recent mortality rates in the most deprived parts of England have been almost twice those in the least deprived areas; although aggregate savings have surged during the crisis, the poorest fifth of households are 50 per cent more likely to have seen their savings deteriorate rather than rise during the crisis; the poorest fifth of households are also twice as likely to have seen their debts rise rather than fall during the crisis.

Last updated on hub: 22 March 2021

The challenge of controlling COVID-19: public health and social care policy in England during the first wave

Policy Press

Providing an account of the policy response to COVID-19 in England, this book analyses the political and long-term systemic factors associated with the failures to control the first wave of the pandemic during 2020. It explores the part played by key policy actors, particularly politicians and scientists, and focuses on two difficult policy issues during the first wave: the establishment of a ‘test, trace and isolate’ system and responses to the high death rate in care homes for older people. Drawing on a wide range of documentary evidence, including parliamentary papers and SAGE minutes, the book draws attention to the importance of longstanding structural problems in public health and the care sector, especially the impact of outsourcing and privatisation.

Last updated on hub: 25 May 2021

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