COVID-19 resources on Infection control

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Responding to the ‘Shadow Pandemic’: practitioner views on the nature of and responses to violence against women in Victoria, Australia during the COVID-19 restrictions

Monash University

This report presents the findings from a survey to capture the voices and experiences of practitioners responding to women experiencing violence during the COVID-19 shutdown in Victoria, Australia. With more people confined to their homes to reduce the community spread of COVID-19, there is a greater risk of violence against women and children. The analysis of practitioner responses to the survey found that the pandemic has led to: an increase in the frequency and severity of violence against women (VAW); an increase in the complexity of women’s needs; for 42 per cent of respondents, an increase in first-time family violence reporting by women; enhanced tactics to achieve social isolation and forms of violence specifically relating to the threat and risk of COVID-19 infection; for many women experiencing violence during the lockdown period, there was less ability to seek help; service innovations have occurred across Victoria to enhance accessibility and effectiveness of service delivery during the COVID-19 easing of restrictions and recovery phase; numerous challenges to providing support, undertaking effective risk assessment and carrying out safety planning during the COVID-19 shutdown phase. The research also draws attention to the wellbeing considerations for practitioners working remotely to support women experiencing violence during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the need to develop worker supports as restrictions are eased and a period of recovery is entered.

Last updated on hub: 24 June 2020

Responding to the COVID-19 pandemic: ethical considerations. Rapid policy briefing

Nuffield Council on Bioethics

Policy briefing from the Nuffield Council on Bioethics setting out the key ethical considerations relevant to public health measures being introduced to manage the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in the UK. It draws on the findings of a number of in-depth inquiries, including those concerned with public health, solidarity, and research in global health emergencies. Key points in the briefing include: public health measures need to be evidence-based and proportionate; aims of any interventions should be clearly communicated to the public; coercion and intrusion into people's lives should be the minimum possible; and the importance of solidarity at an international level between countries, by businesses in how they exercise their corporate social responsibility, and at the individual level.

Last updated on hub: 02 April 2020

Restricting workforce movement between care homes and other care settings

Department of Health and Social Care

Guidance for care home providers on limiting staff movement between settings in all but exceptional circumstances to help reduce the spread of coronavirus (COVID-19) infection. This guidance sets out expectations of providers on limiting the routine movement of staff, and how to manage the risks of deploying individuals who work in multiple settings in those exceptional circumstances where it is the only remaining mechanism to ensure enough staff are available to care for service users safely. Care home providers should continue to limit all staff movement between settings unless absolutely necessary to help reduce the spread of infection. This includes: staff who work for one provider across several care homes; staff who work on a part-time basis for multiple employers in multiple care homes or other care settings; and agency or other temporary staff. There are limited exceptional circumstances where, in order to ensure enough staff are available to provide care safely, care home providers may need to deploy people who are also working in another health or social care setting. [First published 1 March 2021; last updated 3 March 2021]

Last updated on hub: 02 March 2021

Restructuring paradigm in the wake of COVID-19: a study of Kerala model

Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment

The novel coronavirus that shook the world population has restructured the world order. While the scientists are grappling hard to find a solution to the imminent problem at hand, the pandemic has thrown the human race into a perplexed stage questioning and mostly changing everything they believed in. The pandemic has replaced human beings as social animal to virtual being. The social distancing mandate required for the survival as propounded by WHO has forced individuals to keep the other humans at bay. The present paper is an attempt to look at the changes the world is facing with respect to the social, cultural, economic, and psychological aspects with a special focus on the internationally acclaimed Kerala model of survival. Kerala, a small state located within the southern peninsula of the country has played an important role in containing the spread of the virus despite its larger population density. The paper focuses on the innovative mechanics followed by the state to curtail the spreading. It also attempts to look at the changes that have been brought in the general human behavior.

Last updated on hub: 22 April 2021

Retirement village and extra care housing in England: operators’ experience during the COVID-19 pandemic

St Monica Trust

This study explores how Covid-19 affected the housing-with-care operators, their staff and residents; how operators responded to the pandemic; their innovations and successes and the key ongoing challenges. The study sought information and insight via an online questionnaire survey, with a sampling frame provided by the Elderly Accommodation Counsel (EAC) and administered by the Housing Learning and Improvement Network (HLIN). The efficacy of retirement village (RV) and extra care housing (ECH) operators’ response to the pandemic is evident from the positive feedback and overall positive experiences of residents, and the level of protection afforded to them; resident COVID-19 death rates were lower than expected when compared to people of similar ages residing in the wider community. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has exerted a huge strain on operators. In common with care homes, many of the major operational pressures and challenges they faced related to anxiety, stress, numbers of staff off work self-isolating or shielding, staff burnout, staff shortages, managing expectations, lack of availability of PPE, and striving to protect health and well-being. The costs and losses incurred due to the pandemic have far outweighed any savings or funding received, and many costs are still on-going. Successful measures shared by operators focused on having a framework of emergency command, plans, processes, procedures and templates ready in place. Highlighted as being especially important were implementing comprehensive risk assessments, ensuring access to PPE, and the means for effective communication to all stakeholders (particularly residents, their relatives and staff). Consultation was considered very beneficial for keeping people included in the decision-making, up to date and on board with changes. There are major concerns for operators going forward regarding resident and staff well-being, loss of revenue and other financial pressures, especially if further lockdowns ensue.

Last updated on hub: 03 May 2021



This website is for families or close friends having problems visiting a loved one who is autistic and/or has learning disabilities. Visits are being limited or stopped because of COVID-19.

Last updated on hub: 19 October 2020

Risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and outbreaks in long term care facilities in England: a national survey


This article is a preprint and has not been peer-reviewed. This study aimed to identify risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection and outbreaks in Long Term Care Facilities (LTCFs). It was a cross-sectional survey of all LTCFs providing dementia care or care to adults >65 years in England with linkage to SARS-CoV-2 test results. Findings: 5126/9081 (56%) LTCFs participated in the survey, with 160,033 residents and 248,594 staff. The weighted period prevalence of infection in residents and staff respectively was 10.5% (95% CI: 9.9-11.1%) and 3.8% (95%: 3.4-4.2%) and 2724 LTCFs (53.1%) had ≥1 infection. Odds of infection and/or outbreaks were reduced in LTCFs that paid sickness pay, cohorted staff, did not employ agency staff and had higher staff to resident ratios. Higher odds of infection and outbreaks were identified in facilities with more admissions, lower cleaning frequency, poor compliance with isolation and “for profit” status. Interpretation: Half of LTCFs had no cases suggesting they remain vulnerable to outbreaks. Reducing transmission from staff requires adequate sick pay, minimal use of temporary staff, improved staffing ratios and staff cohorting. Transmission from residents is associated with the number of admissions to the facility and poor compliance with isolation.

Last updated on hub: 13 November 2020

Safe working in education, childcare and children’s social care settings, including the use of personal protective equipment (PPE)

Department for Education

This guidance applies to staff working in education, childcare and children’s social care settings in England; children, young people and learners who attend these settings; and their parents or carers. It explains the strategy for infection prevention and control, including the specific circumstances PPE should be used, to enable safe working during the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. The guidance also looks at the specific steps that should be taken in children’s homes, including secure children’s homes; in foster care settings; when dealing with young children or children with special educational needs; when providing social care visits to extremely clinically vulnerable children and young people. [Published 14 May 2020. Last updated 15 July 2021]

Last updated on hub: 25 June 2020

Safe, happy and together: design ideas for minimising the spread of infection whilst nurturing social interaction in later living communities

Housing LIN

This report outlines a series of practical design recommendations to control the transmission of coronavirus, and other everyday infections, in later-living housing whilst maintaining social interaction for residents. Later living, in this paper, refers to residential accommodation consisting of self-contained apartments with associated communal, support and ancillary spaces under one roof. The document is intended to be a practical guide for designers, operators and developers refurbishing ageing later-living housing projects or considering new ones. It identifies thirteen specific areas that would require improvements in order to safeguard the mental and physical health of residents, and to enable staff to manage additional tasks that might be required of them during a pandemic. Key recommendations include creating a separate entrance for staff and deliveries, additional storage for PPE, ventilators, sanitation equipment at all entrances and installing a traffic light system in the lobby to control movement in and out of the building or a ‘pop-up’ shelter in the entrance courtyard for supervised visits.

Last updated on hub: 28 July 2020

Safeguarding adults practice and remote working in the COVID-19 era: challenges and opportunities

Journal of Adult Protection

Purpose: This exploratory paper aims to examine the literature on the impact of COVID-19 on safeguarding adults practice. Design/methodology/approach: A literature search was carried out in recently published articles to locate literature relating to COVID-19 and safeguarding adults in the UK and internationally. This included policy guidance and law, to describe the existing knowledge base, gaps in practice and areas that may require further research. Findings: The findings suggest that measures to curb the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic gave rise to remote working and virtual safeguarding practice. The findings highlight the need for empirical research into the impact of virtual safeguarding adults assessments and effective ways to support the needs and outcomes of those who may be at risk of or experiencing abuse and neglect while shielding, socially isolating or when working in an environment where social distancing is required. Research limitations/implications: The paper is based on a review and analysis of published documents and not on other types of research. Originality/value: Little is known about effective safeguarding adults practice in the era of shielding, self-isolation, social distancing and remote working. The paper adds to the body of knowledge in the field.

Last updated on hub: 09 December 2020

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