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All research records related prevention examples and research

Results 21 - 30 of 406

Interventions to prevent and reduce excessive alcohol consumption in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis

KELLY Sarah, et al
2018

Background: harmful alcohol consumption is reported to be increasing in older people. To intervene and reduce associated risks, evidence currently available needs to be identified. Methods: two systematic reviews in older populations (55+ years): (1) Interventions to prevent or reduce excessive alcohol consumption; (2) Interventions as (1) also reporting cognitive and dementia outcomes. Comprehensive database searches from 2000 to November 2016 for studies in English, from OECD countries. Alcohol dependence treatment excluded. Data were synthesised narratively and using meta-analysis. Risk of bias was assessed using NICE methodology. Reviews are reported according to PRISMA. Results: thirteen studies were identified, but none with cognition or dementia outcomes. Three related to primary prevention; 10 targeted harmful or hazardous older drinkers. A complex range of interventions, intensity and delivery was found. There was an overall intervention effect for 3- and 6-month outcomes combined (8 studies; 3,591 participants; pooled standard mean difference (SMD) −0.18 (95% CI −0.28, −0.07) and 12 months (6 studies; 2,788 participants SMD −0.16 (95% CI −0.32, −0.01) but risk of bias for most studies was unclear with significant heterogeneity. Limited evidence (three studies) suggested more intensive interventions with personalised feedback, physician advice, educational materials, follow-up could be most effective. However, simple interventions including brief interventions, leaflets, alcohol assessments with advice to reduce drinking could also have a positive effect. Conclusions: alcohol interventions in older people may be effective but studies were at unclear or high risk of bias. Evidence gaps include primary prevention, cost-effectiveness, impact on cognitive and dementia outcomes.

The power of support from companion animals for people living with mental health problems: a systematic review and narrative synthesis of the evidence

BROOKS Helen Louise, et al
2018

Background: There is increasing recognition of the therapeutic function pets can play in relation to mental health. However, there has been no systematic review of the evidence related to the comprehensive role of companion animals and how pets might contribute to the work associated with managing a long-term mental health condition. The aim of this study was to explore the extent, nature and quality of the evidence implicating the role and utility of pet ownership for people living with a mental health condition. Methods: A systematic search for studies exploring the role of companion animals in the management of mental health conditions was undertaken by searching 9 databases and undertaking a scoping review of grey literature from the earliest record until March 2017. To be eligible for inclusion, studies had to be published in English and report on primary data related to the relationship between domestic animal ownership and the management of diagnosable mental health conditions. Synthesis of qualitative and quantitative data was undertaken in parallel using a narrative synthesis informed by an illness work theoretical framework. Results: A total of 17 studies were included in the review. Quantitative evidence relating to the benefits of pet ownership was mixed with included studies demonstrating positive, negative and neutral impacts of pet ownership. Qualitative studies illuminated the intensiveness of connectivity people with companion animals reported, and the multi-faceted ways in which pets contributed to the work associated with managing a mental health condition, particularly in times of crisis. The negative aspects of pet ownership were also highlighted, including the practical and emotional burden of pet ownership and the psychological impact that losing a pet has. Conclusion: This review suggests that pets provide benefits to those with mental health conditions. Further research is required to test the nature and extent of this relationship, incorporating outcomes that cover the range of roles and types of support pets confer in relation to mental health and the means by which these can be incorporated into the mainstay of support for people experiencing a mental health problem.

The association between physical activity and social isolation in community-dwelling older adults

ROBINS Lauren M., et al
2018

Objectives: Social isolation is an increasing concern in older community-dwelling adults. There is growing need to determine effective interventions addressing social isolation. This study aimed to determine whether a relationship exists between physical activity (recreational and/or household-based) and social isolation. An examination was conducted for whether group- or home-based falls prevention exercise was associated with social isolation. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of telephone survey data was used to investigate relationships between physical activity, health, age, gender, living arrangements, ethnicity and participation in group- or home-based falls prevention exercise on social isolation. Univariable and multivariable ordered logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results: Factors found to be significantly associated with reduced social isolation in multivariable analysis included living with a partner/spouse, reporting better general health, higher levels of household-based physical activity (OR = 1.03, CI = 1.01–1.05) and feeling less downhearted/depressed. Being more socially isolated was associated with symptoms of depression and a diagnosis of congestive heart failure (pseudo R2 = 0.104). Discussion: Findings suggest that household-based physical activity is related to social isolation in community-dwelling older adults. Further research is required to determine the nature of this relationship and to investigate the impact of group physical activity interventions on social isolation.

Fall prevention for people with learning disabilities: key points and recommendations for practitioners and researchers

FINLAYSON Janet
2018

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a narrative review of what is currently known about the high rates of falls, and fall injuries, which are experienced by people with learning disabilities (LDs) throughout their lives. Design/methodology/approach: Narrative review. Current evidence is summarised as key points and recommendations for practitioners and researchers. Findings: People with LDs experience similar rates of falls as older adults in the wider population, but throughout their lives, or at an earlier age. Originality/value: Key points and recommendations are summarised for practitioners and researchers to promote fall prevention strategies and interventions for people with LDs.

Innovative models of health, care and support for adults

SOCIAL CARE INSTITUTE FOR EXCELLENCE
2018

This briefing explains that innovative, often small-scale models of health, social care and support for adults could be scaled up to benefit as many people as possible. The challenge is to make scaling up successful. The briefing is based on research conducted during the spring of 2017 by Nesta, SCIE, Shared Lives Plus and PPL. It includes real life examples and case studies to show how stakeholders are involved in building and growing successful and sustainable innovations in health, care and support which provide new ways of delivering relationship-based care. It also identifies key challenges and facilitators to scaling up innovative models and makes recommendations to help make impactful innovative models become part of mainstream care. It includes case studies from North London Carers – a community network of young professionals and older neighbours which helps to reduce loneliness and increase wellbeing; Age UK’s Personalised Integrated Care programme – which brings together voluntary organisations and health and care services to support for older people living with multiple long-term conditions who are at risk of recurring hospital admission; Shared lives - adults either live with or regularly visit their chosen carer; North Yorkshire Innovation Fund – which provides funding to support voluntary and community organisations providing innovative intervention or prevention measures; and Wigan’s place-based approach. To help innovative models to flourish and scale up, it identifies keys to success as: a shared ambition to embed person- and community-centred ways of working; co-production; a new model of leadership which is collaborative and convening; investment and commissioning in approaches which result in high quality outcomes; and use of data to drive change a willingness to learn from experience.

A return on investment tool for the assessment of falls prevention programmes for older people living in the community

PUBLIC HEALTH ENGLAND
2018

This report presents results of a tool developed by York Health Economics Consortium to assess the potential return on investment (ROI) of falls prevention programmes targeted at older people living in the community. The tool pulls together evidence on the effectiveness and associated costs for four programmes where there was evidence of cost-effectiveness: Otago home exercise, Falls Management Exercise group programme, Tai Chi group exercise, and home assessment and modification. Based on an example analysis, all four interventions were found to be cost-effective, thus producing a positive societal ROI. One out of four interventions was also found to have a positive financial ROI (ie cost savings outweigh the cost of implementation). An accompanying Excel sheet allows for results to be tailored to the local situation based on the knowledge of the user.

Preventative support for adult carers in Wales: rapid review

SOCIAL CARE INSTITUTE FOR EXCELLENCE
2018

This rapid review, commissioned by Social Care Wales, draws on research published since 2012 to identify emerging and promising practice in adult carers support. It focuses on support that takes a preventative approach by providing information and support to reduce or prevent the likelihood of carer crisis and breakdown, and improve the overall quality of carers’ lives. The review identifies key characteristics of effective preventative support services. It presents the review findings across the following key themes: identification and recognition of carers; the provision of information, advice and assistance; and supporting carers for a life outside of their caring role, through services such as respite and short breaks, emotional and employment support. Examples of services and interventions from Wales and England are included throughout. The final section looks at the available evidence on evaluating what works for carers.

What do older people experiencing loneliness think about primary care or community based interventions to reduce loneliness? A qualitative study in England

KHARICHA Kalpa, et al
2017

Twenty-eight community dwelling people, aged 65 and over who reported being ‘lonely much of the time’ or identified as lonely from the de Jong Gierveld six-item loneliness scale in a larger study, participated in in-depth interviews, between June 2013 and May 2014. Views and experiences on seeking support from primary care and community based one-to-one and group based activities, including social and shared interest groups, were explored. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was conducted by a multidisciplinary team, including older people. Using two different measures of loneliness enabled a spectrum of loneliness experience to be explored. Two-thirds of the participants were the ‘younger old’ and all were able to leave their homes independently. Older people with characteristics of loneliness were generally knowledgeable about local social and community resources but, for the majority, community and primary care based services for their loneliness were not considered desirable or helpful at this point in their lives. However, group based activities with a shared interest were thought preferable to one-to-one support (befriending) or groups with a social focus. Descriptions of support as being for loneliness and specific to older people discouraged engagement. Older people experiencing or at risk of loneliness did not consider that primary care has a role in alleviating loneliness because it is not an illness. They thought primary care practitioners lack understanding of non-physical problems and that a good relationship was necessary to discuss sensitive issues like loneliness. For many, loneliness was a complex and private matter that they wished to manage without external support.

Evaluation of the volunteering in care homes project: summary report

HILL Matthew
2016

Summary report of an evaluation of the Volunteering in Care Homes (ViCH) project, which examines the impact of volunteering on residents, staff and volunteers and also explores the implications for developing volunteering in care homes more generally. The project was piloted in fourteen care homes, which placed trained volunteers in befriending and activity-based roles. The evaluation found good subjective evidence from staff and volunteer surveys of that befriending and activity-based volunteering roles have major positive impacts for residents in care homes, especially around social and emotional wellbeing. The majority of staff surveyed also felt the involvement of volunteers has a positive impact on their job, in terms of job satisfaction, retention and levels of stress. The evaluation also looked at the cost-effectiveness of the approach. The project had high start-up costs, with a positive ongoing value ratio achieved 18 months into the project. In order to deliver positive impacts for residents and staff, the project found that volunteers need to be effectively recruited, sufficiently trained, well matched and receive substantial ongoing support and coordination. Other factors identified that need to be addressed to enable volunteer engagement to become well established across the sector, include strategic leadership, culture change, good practice learning, financial resources and regulatory incentives.

Gig buddies: project report: January 2013 - December 2014

STAY UP LATE
2015

This evaluation report looks at how the Gig Buddies scheme has developed, the lessons learned, and the way support is offered to people to be less socially isolated while new types of volunteers are created in the process. Gig Buddies is a project that pairs up people with and without learning disabilities in Sussex to be friends and to go to events together. This report also looks at the plans to replicate Gig Buddies as a social franchise (‘Gig Buddies in a box’) by sharing experience and creating a model that enables replication, whilst also protecting the integrity of the project. The report argues that the pilot project demonstrates that Gig Buddies has the potential to transform communities, enabling many more people with learning disabilities and autism to be less socially isolated and unleashing the capacity of communities to become more involved in voluntary work.

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