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Results for 'older people'

Results 51 - 60 of 228

Preventive interventions for the second half of life: a systematic review

HAJAT Cother, et al
2018

Objective: Recent improvements in life expectancy globally require intensified focus on noncommunicable diseases and age-related conditions. The purpose of this article is to inform the development of age-specific prevention guidelines for adults aged 50 and above, which are currently lacking. Data Source: PubMed, Cochrane database, and Google Scholar and explicit outreach to experts in the field. Study Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria: Meta-analyses, intervention-based, and prospective cohort studies that reported all-cause mortality, disease-specific mortality, or morbidity in adults were included. Data Extraction: A systematic review was undertaken in 2015 using search terms of a combination of and “intervention,” “mortality,” “reduction,” “improvement,” “death,” and “morbidity.” Data Synthesis: Interventions were categorized according to the Center for Evidence-Based Medicine Level of Evidence framework. Results: A summary table reports for each intervention the impact, strength of evidence, initiation, duration, and details of the intervention. Age-decade-specific preventive recommendations have been proposed relating to physical activity, diet, tobacco and alcohol use, medication adherence, screening and vaccination, and mental and cognitive health. Conclusion: Clear recommendations have been made according to the existing evidence base, but further research investment is needed to fill the many gaps. Further, personalized approaches to healthy aging complemented by population-wide approaches and broader cross-sector partnerships will help to ensure greater longevity is an opportunity, rather than a burden, for society.

Creative and cultural activities and wellbeing in later life

ARCHER Libby, et al
2018

This report explores the benefits of participating in creative and cultural activities for wellbeing in later life. It discusses what creative and cultural participation means and the types of activities people take part in, such as dance, craft, literary activities, music and historical activities. It also looks at the factors that can help people get involved and how levels of involvement can differ depending on people’s overall level of wellbeing. It includes examples of initiatives for older people, including Independent Arts’ participatory arts Time & Tide project and Out in the City’, a social initiative for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people over 50. It concludes with recommendations for practitioners and policymakers.

Roots and Shoots

SMART Cranleigh

SMART Cranleigh is an innovative community led programme that takes a place-based approach to health and wellbeing. Whilst the goal is to support the wellbeing of all villagers; the impetus for the programme came in part from the realisation that traditional health and social care services were not alone able to meet the needs of people of all ages in a large and fast growing rural village. Specifically they were not adequately meeting the needs of the significant and increasing number of older people within the community.

What works for wellbeing? A systematic review of wellbeing outcomes for music and singing in adults

DAYKIN Norma, et al
2018

Aims: The role of arts and music in supporting subjective wellbeing (SWB) is increasingly recognised. Robust evidence is needed to support policy and practice. This article reports on the first of four reviews of Culture, Sport and Wellbeing (CSW) commissioned by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded What Works Centre for Wellbeing (https://whatworkswellbeing.org/). Objective: To identify SWB outcomes for music and singing in adults. Methods: Comprehensive literature searches were conducted in PsychInfo, Medline, ERIC, Arts and Humanities, Social Science and Science Citation Indexes, Scopus, PILOTS and CINAHL databases. From 5,397 records identified, 61 relevant records were assessed using GRADE and CERQual schema. Results: A wide range of wellbeing measures was used, with no consistency in how SWB was measured across the studies. A wide range of activities was reported, most commonly music listening and regular group singing. Music has been associated with reduced anxiety in young adults, enhanced mood and purpose in adults and mental wellbeing, quality of life, self-awareness and coping in people with diagnosed health conditions. Music and singing have been shown to be effective in enhancing morale and reducing risk of depression in older people. Few studies address SWB in people with dementia. While there are a few studies of music with marginalised communities, participants in community choirs tend to be female, white and relatively well educated. Research challenges include recruiting participants with baseline wellbeing scores that are low enough to record any significant or noteworthy change following a music or singing intervention. Conclusions: There is reliable evidence for positive effects of music and singing on wellbeing in adults. There remains a need for research with sub-groups who are at greater risk of lower levels of wellbeing, and on the processes by which wellbeing outcomes are, or are not, achieved.

Building relationships between the generations: the case of the co-located nursery

NIGHTINGALE HAMMERSON
2018

This case study describes the development of the UK’s first intergenerational nursery, a partnership between the Apples and Honey Nursery group and the Jewish elderly care home charity Nightingale Hammerson. It covers the different stages of the project, from the initial idea, building community support and setting up a weekly intergenerational baby and toddler group in January 2017, to opening a day nursery within the grounds in September 2017, where intergenerational sessions between nursery children and care home residents take place daily. The report includes feedback from the first year of the intergenerational programme, including the views of families who attend the baby and toddler group, residents of the care home, volunteers, physiotherapists, parents from the new nursery, and staff from both organisations. It also includes early lessons learned as a result of including nursery children into weekly exercise classes with residents and observations from early year's teachers as to the impact of intergenerational play on the very young and those with dementia.

Volunteer peer support and befriending for carers of people living with dementia: an exploration of volunteers’ experiences

SMITH Raymond, et al
2018

With ageing populations and greater reliance on the voluntary sector, the number of volunteer‐led peer support and befriending services for carers of people with dementia in England is set to increase. However, little is known about the experiences of the volunteers who deliver these interventions, many of whom are former carers. Using in‐depth semi‐structured interviews with 10 volunteer peer supporters and befrienders, this exploratory study investigated volunteers’ experiences of delivering the support, the types of relationships they form with carers and their perceptions of its impact upon them and on carers. Data were analysed using framework analysis. Findings showed that volunteers benefitted from their role due to the ‘two‐way’ flow of support. Experiential similarity and having common interests with carers were considered important to the development of mutually beneficial relationships. Volunteers perceived that carers gained emotional and social support, which in turn improved the carers’ coping ability. Being able to see positive changes to carers’ lives was important for volunteers to gain enjoyment and satisfaction from their role. However, volunteers also identified challenges with their role, such as dealing with carers’ emotions. Future research should investigate ways of reducing potential burden on volunteers and explore the impact of volunteering specifically on former carers of people with dementia.

Interventions to reduce social isolation and loneliness among older people: an integrative review

GARDINER Clare, GELDENHUYS Gideon, GOTT Merryn
2018

Loneliness and social isolation are major problems for older adults. Interventions and activities aimed at reducing social isolation and loneliness are widely advocated as a solution to this growing problem. The aim of this study was to conduct an integrative review to identify the range and scope of interventions that target social isolation and loneliness among older people, to gain insight into why interventions are successful and to determine the effectiveness of those interventions. Six electronic databases were searched from 2003 until January 2016 for literature relating to interventions with a primary or secondary outcome of reducing or preventing social isolation and/or loneliness among older people. Data evaluation followed Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Co‐ordinating Centre guidelines and data analysis was conducted using a descriptive thematic method for synthesising data. The review identified 38 studies. A range of interventions were described which relied on differing mechanisms for reducing social isolation and loneliness. The majority of interventions reported some success in reducing social isolation and loneliness, but the quality of evidence was generally weak. Factors which were associated with the most effective interventions included adaptability, a community development approach, and productive engagement. A wide range of interventions have been developed to tackle social isolation and loneliness among older people. However, the quality of the evidence base is weak and further research is required to provide more robust data on the effectiveness of interventions. Furthermore, there is an urgent need to further develop theoretical understandings of how successful interventions mediate social isolation and loneliness.

Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of community singing on mental health-related quality of life of older people: randomised controlled trial

COULTON Simon, et al
2015

Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of community group singing for a population of older people in England. Method: A pilot pragmatic individual randomised controlled trial comparing group singing with usual activities in those aged 60 years or more. Results: A total of 258 participants were recruited across five centres in East Kent. At 6 months post-randomisation, significant differences were observed in terms of mental health-related quality of life measured using the SF12 in favour of group singing. In addition, the intervention was found to be marginally more cost-effective than usual activities. At 3 months, significant differences were observed for the mental health components of quality of life, anxiety and depression. Conclusions: Community group singing appears to have a significant effect on mental health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression, and it may be a useful intervention to maintain and enhance the mental health of older people.

A review of the basic principles of sustainable community-based volunteering approaches to tackling loneliness and social isolation among older people

PARKINSON Andy, GRIFFITHS Endaf, TRIER Eva
2018

This study examines the social, economic and environmental conditions that enable community-based volunteering projects to reduce loneliness and isolation in older people to become successful. It also identifies barriers to volunteering approaches, and how they can be tackled. The study involved a literature review, consultation with stakeholders, and an analysis of eight case studies in Wales. Drawing on the findings, it also sets out a Theory of Change to show how programmes have the potential to reduce loneliness and social isolation and provides a framework for the future self-evaluation of programmes. The study found that schemes employ a range of approaches in order to engage and support their clients, including in-home visits, telephone befriending, and group activities. This can be influenced by funding or its ability to support the project’s aims and outcomes. Other key findings highlight the need for schemes to be able to accurately assess the social and emotional status of older people so as to deliver appropriate interventions; for schemes to target effectively to reach those most at risk. It also found that schemes adopting a participatory approach which places local people at the heart and schemes which focused on smaller geographical areas tended to be more effective. The report makes eight recommendations, which include the development of a standard method or tools for monitoring and evaluating volunteer-led schemes.

Effectiveness of complex falls prevention interventions in residential aged care settings: a systematic review

FRANCIS-COAD Jacqueline, et al
2018

Objective: The objective of this review was to synthesize the best available evidence for the effectiveness of complex falls prevention interventions delivered at two or more of the following levels: resident, facility or organization, on fall rates in the residential aged care (RAC) population. Introduction: Preventing falls in the high risk RAC population is a common global goal with acknowledged complexity. Previous meta-analyses have not specifically addressed complexity, described as falls prevention intervention delivery at multiple levels of a RAC organization, to determine its effect on fall outcomes. Inclusion criteria: The current review considered studies that included participants who were aged 65 years and over residing in long-term care settings providing 24-hour supervision and/or care assistance. Studies that evaluated complex falls prevention interventions delivered by single discipline or multidisciplinary teams across at least two or all of the following levels: residents, RAC facility and RAC organization were eligible. Experimental study designs including randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials and quasi-experimental trials that reported on measures related to fall incidence were considered, namely, rate of falls (expressed as the number of falls per 1000 occupied bed days), the number of participants who became fallers (expressed as the number of participants who fell once or more) and the rate of injurious falls (expressed as the number of falls with injury per 1000 occupied bed days). Methods: A three-step search strategy was undertaken, commencing with an initial scoping search of MEDLINE and CINAHL databases prior to an extensive search of all relevant published literature, clinical trial registries and gray literature. Two independent reviewers assessed selected studies for methodological validity using the standardized critical appraisal instrument from the Joanna Briggs Institute System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information (JBI SUMARI). Data were extracted from the selected studies using the standardized data extraction tool from JBI SUMARI. Quantitative data were pooled in statistical meta-analysis for rate of falls, the number of participants who became fallers and the rate of injurious falls. Meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effect model with heterogeneity assessed using the standard Chi-squared and I2 index. Where statistical pooling was not possible, study findings were presented in narrative form. Results: Twelve studies were included in this review with seven being eligible for meta-analysis. Complex falls prevention interventions delivered at multiple levels in RAC populations did not show a significant effect in reducing fall rates (MD = −1.29; 95% CI [−3.01, 0.43]), or the proportion of residents who fell (OR = 0.76; 95% CI [0.42, 1.38]). However, a sensitivity analysis suggested complex falls prevention interventions delivered with additional resources at multiple levels had a significant positive effect in reducing fall rates (MD = −2.26; 95% CI [−3.72, −0.80]). Conclusions: Complex falls prevention interventions delivered at multiple levels in the RAC population may reduce fall rates when additional staffing, expertise or resources are provided. Organizations may need to determine how resources can be allocated to best address falls prevention management. Future research should continue to investigate which combinations of multifactorial interventions are effective.

Results 51 - 60 of 228

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