Report 41: Prevention in adult safeguarding


'People who use services are clear that effective prevention in safeguarding is not about over-protective paternalism or risk-averse practice.'


1 Department of Health and Home Office (2000) 'No secrets: Guidance on developing and implementing multi-agency policies and procedures to protect adult at risk from abuse. 'London: Department of Health.

2 Department of Health (2009) 'Safeguarding adults: Report on the consultation on the review of No secrets,' London: Department of Health.

3 Commission for Social Care Inspection report (2008a) 'Safeguarding adults: A study of the effectiveness of arrangements to safeguard adults from abuse,' London: CSCI.

4 Hester, M. and Westmarland, N. (2005) 'Tackling domestic violence: Effective interventions and approaches', Home Office Research Study 290, London: Home Office.

5 Carr, S. (2010) 'Enabling risk, ensuring safety: Self-directed support and personal budgets, 'Report 36, London: Social Care Institute for Excellence.

6 Commission for Social Care Inspection report (2008b) 'Raising voices: Views on safeguarding adults,' London: CSCI.

7 Kalaga, H. and Kingston, P. (2007) 'A review of literature on effective interventions that prevent and respond to harm against adults', Edinburgh: Scottish Government Social Research.

8 Department of Health (2003) 'Fair access to care services: Guidance on eligibility criteria for adult social care', London: Department of Health.

9 Department of Health (2010) 'Prioritising need in the context of Putting people first: a whole system approach to eligibility for social care – guidance on eligibility criteria for adult social care, England 2010', London: Department of Health.

10 HM Government (2007) 'Putting people first: A shared vision and commitment to the transformation of adult social care.' London: HM Government.

11 Association of Directors of Adult Social Services (2005) 'Safeguarding adults: A national framework of standards for good practice and outcomes in adult protection work'. London: ADASS.

12 Law Commission (2011) 'Adult social care consultation analysis, 'Consultation Paper No 192 (Consultation Analysis), London: Law Commission.

13 Mowlam, A., Tennant, R., Dixon, J. and McCreadie, C. (2007) 'UK'' study of abuse and neglect of older people: qualitative findings.' Report to Comic Relief and Department of Health. London: National Centre for Social Research.

14 Northway, R., Davies, R. Jenkins, R. and Mansell, I. (2005) 'Evidencing good practice in adult protection: Informing the protection of people with learning disabilities from abuse', 'The Journal of Adult Protection', vol 7, no 2, pp 28–36.

Identifying people at risk of abuse

15 Bruder, C. and Kroese B.S. (2005) 'The efficacy of interventions designed to prevent and protect people with intellectual disabilities from sexual abuse: a review of the literature', 'The Journal of Adult Protection', vol 7, no 2, pp 13–27.

16 Hollomotz, A. (2007) 'Beyond vulnerability: an ecological model approach conceptualising risk of sexual violence against people with learning disabilities', 'British Journal of Social Work'. First published online August 29, 2007.

17 Kiekopf, S. (2002) 'Establishing a protection committee in a campaigning organisation for deafblind people'. 'The Journal of Adult Protection, 'vol 4, no 1, pp 40–43.

18 Cambridge, P. and Carnaby, S. (2000) 'A personal touch? Managing the risks of abuse in intimate and personal care for people with intellectual disabilities', 'Journal of Adult Protection, 'vol 4, pp 4–16.

19 Rusch, R.G., Hall, J.C. and Griffin, H.C. (1986) 'Abuse provoking characteristics of institutionalized mentally retarded individuals', 'American Journal of Mental Deficiency', vol 90, pp 618–24.

20 Golding, L. and Clear, D. (2001) 'A proactive approach to preventing abuse', 'Nursing Times, 'vol 97, no 43, pp 32–33.

21 Women's Aid (2008) 'Making the links: disabled women and domestic violence', Bristol: Woman's Aid.

22 Eckert, L., Sugar, N. and Fine, D. (2002) 'Characteristics of sexual assault in women with a major psychiatric diagnosis', 'American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 'vol 186, no 6, pp1284–91.

23 Wilson, B., Burns, S. and Brown, H. (2003) 'Links between the Public Guardianship Office and social services departments', 'Journal of Adult Protection', vol 5, no 2, pp 38–46.

24 Choi, N.G. and Mayer, J. (2000) 'Elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation – risk factors and prevention strategies', 'Journal of Gerontological Social Work', vol 33, no 2, pp 5–26.

25 DeHart, D., Webb, J. and Cornman, C. (2009) 'Prevention of elder mistreatment in nursing homes: competencies for direct-care staff', 'Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect', vol 21, no 4, pp 360–78.

26 O'Keefe, M., Hills, A., Doyle, M., McCreadie, C., Scholes, S., Constantin, R., Tinker, A., Manthorpe, J., Biggs, S. and Erens, B. (2007) 'UK'' Study of abuse and neglect of older people: prevalence survey report.' Report to Comic Relief and Department of Health. London: National Centre for Social Research.

27 O'Dowd, A. (2007) 'Recognising and preventing the abuse of older people', 'Nursing Times, 'vol 103, no 27, pp 21–22.

28 Donohue, W.A., Dibble, J.L. and Schiamberg, L.B. (2008) 'A social capital approach to the prevention of elder mistreatment', 'Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect', vol 20, no 1, pp 1–23.

29 Marsland, D., Oakes, P. and White, C. (2007) 'Abuse in care? The identification of early indicators of the abuse of people with learning disabilities in residential settings', 'Journal of Adult Protection, 'vol 9, no 4, pp 6–20.

30 Benbow, S. (2008) 'Failures in the system: our inability to learn from inquiries', 'The Journal of Adult Protection', vol 10, no 3, pp 5–13.

Public awareness

31 Leander, K. (2002) 'Preventing men's violence against women', 'Acta Psychiatrica Scandanavia, 'vol 106, no 412, pp 15–19.

32 Ansello, E.F. and O'Neill, P. (2010) 'Abuse, neglect and exploitation: considerations in aging with lifelong disabilities', 'Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect', vol 22, no 1, pp 105–30.

33 Vincent, F., Radford, K., Jarman, N., Martynowicz, A. and Rallings, M-K. (2009) 'Hate crime against people with disabilities: A baseline study of experiences in Northern Ireland'. Belfast: Institute for Conflict Research.

34 Curtis, L. (2006) 'Partnering with faith communities to provide elder fraud prevention, intervention, and victim services', 'Office for Victims of Crime Bulletin, 'April.

35 McCreadie, C. (2001) 'Making connections: Good practice in the prevention and management of elder abuse '–' learning from SSI inspection reports in community and residential care settings'. London: Department of Health.

Information, advice and advocacy

36 Commission for Social Care Inspection, Association of Directors of Adult Social Services and Association of Chief Police Officers (2007) 'Safeguarding adults protocol and guidance,' London: CSCI.

37 Blood, I. (2004) 'Older women and domestic violence: a report for Help the Aged.' London: Help the Aged.

Training and education

38 Singer, N. (1996) 'Evaluation of a self protection group for clients living in a residential group home'. 'The British Journal of Development Disabilities', vol 82, no 1, pp 54–62.

39 Miltenberger, R., Roberts, J., Ellingten, S., Galensky, T., Rapp, J., Long, E. and Lumley, V. (1999) 'Training and generalisation of sexual abuse prevention skills for women with mental retardation', 'Journal of Applied Behaviour Analysis', vol 32, pp 385–88.

40 Long, K. and Holmes, N. (2001) 'Helping adults with a learning disability keep safe in the local community: report of a group design, development and evaluation', 'British Journal of Learning Disabilities', vol 29, pp 139–44.

41 Khemka, I. (2000) 'Increasing independent decision making skills of women with mental retardation in simulated interpersonal situations of abuse', 'American Journal on Mental Retardation', vol 105, no 5, pp 387–401.

42 Collins, M. and Walford, M. (2008) 'Helping adult at risk to keep safe', 'Journal of Adult Protection, 'vol 10, no 1, pp 7–12.

43 Commission for Social Care Inspection and Commission for Healthcare Audit and Inspection (2006) 'Joint investigation into the provision of services for people with learning disabilities at Cornwall Partnership NHS Trust', London: Commission for Healthcare Audit and Inspection.

44 Parry, I. (2006) 'Abuse in sheltered housing: prevention, safeguards and good practice', 'Working with Older People, 'vol 10, no 2, pp 24–27.

45 Payne, B.K. and Fletcher, L.B. (2005) 'Elder abuse in nursing homes: prevention and resolution strategies and barriers', 'Journal of Criminal Justice, 'vol33, no 2, pp 119–25.

46 Angus, A.D. and Brailsford, A. (2007) 'Using skills to prevent abusive practice', Chichester: Assess for Care, HealthcareA2Z.

Policies and procedures

47 Minshull, P. (2004) 'Avoiding systemic neglect and abuse in older people's inpatient mental health care settings', 'The Journal of Adult Protection', vol 6, no 4, pp 27–32.

48 Richards, D.A., Bee, P., Loftus, S., Baker, J.A., Lovell, K., Bailey, L., Cox, D. and Woods, P. (2003) 'Core competencies for modern mental health care: The effect of an innovative training programme on the quality of care for acute inpatient mental health services'. Manchester: University of Manchester.

49 Mustafa, N. (2008) 'How the United Kingdom's Criminal Records Bureau can reduce the prevalence of elder abuse by improving recruitment decision-making', The Journal of Adult Protection, vol 10, no 4, pp 37–45.

Regulation and legislation

50 Crown Prosecution Service (2008) 'Violence against women: Strategy and action plans'. London: CPS.

51 Manthorpe, J., Rapaport, J., Harris, J. and Samsi, K. (2009) 'Realising the safeguarding potential of the Mental Capacity Act 2005: early reports from adult safeguarding staff', 'Journal of Adult Protection', vol 11, no 2, pp13–24.

52 Reid, D., Penhale, B., Manthorpe, J., Perkins, N., Pinkney, L. and Hussein, S. (2009) 'Form and function: views from members of adult protection committees in England and Wales', 'Journal of Adult Protection', vol11, no 4, pp 20–29.

Inter-agency collaboration

53 Flynn, M. (2007) 'The murder of Steven Hoskin: a Serious Case Review.' Executive summary. Truro: Cornwall Adult Protection Committee.

54 Braye, S., Orr D, Preston-Shoot, M. (2010) 'The governance of adult safeguarding: Findings from research into safeguarding adults boards.' Final Report to the Department of Health.

Empowerment and choice

55 Social Care Institute for Excellence (2010) 'Enabling risk, ensuring safety: Self-directed support and personal budgets, 'At a glance summary 31, London: SCIE.


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