Report 58: Therapeutic approaches to social work in residential child care settings
The models, their origins, features and evidence base
The project built on existing work in each health and social care trust. This meant that a different therapeutic model was implemented in each trust. The five models were:
- Attachment, Regulation and Competency (ARC) (Blaustein and Kinniburgh, 2007)
- Children and Residential Experiences (CARE) (Holden et al. 2010)
- Model of Attachment Practice (MAP) (developed in the Western Health and Social Care Trust)
- Social pedagogy (used in several other European countries)
- Sanctuary model (Bloom, 1994).
The models share many features, including a focus on:
- Attachment – Drawing on attachment theory
- Trauma – recognising that young people in care have often experienced trauma
- Biopsychosocial nature of development – the impact of social experiences on the body, particularly the brain
- Competency – helping looked-after children develop life skills, such as problem-solving.
There are currently few studies looking at the effectiveness of the approaches. These have found modest positive impacts but lacked robust study designs.
Download the full report and read more about:
- Models frameworks or approaches?
- Similarities between the models
- Key differences between the models
- Just a different way with words?
- Evidence of effectiveness