The participation of adult service users, including older people, in developing social care

Review - Internal evaluation

See Practice Example for MS Society and Surrey Users’ Network.

External and internal evaluation

A distinction is often drawn between formative evaluation, which aims at finding areas for improvement, and summative evaluation, which is undertaken primarily for reporting or decision-making processes (Scriven, 1991).

See Practice Example for The Omnibus Partnership.

Using specific evaluation programmes or measures

There numerous programmes which have been developed to measure public service quality. However their appropriateness for the evaluation of participation is untested. Examples identified in the practice survey included the Cedar Foundation, which has used SERVQUAL, a questionnaire which measures gaps between consumers perceptions of quality and organisations (Parasuraman et al., 1988; 1991), and which can be used across different service organisations (Francis & Netten, 2004), including the public sector (Wisniewski, 2001), People in Action (Leeds), which uses PQASSO (Practical Quality Assurance System for Small Organisations), a quality assurance system developed by Charities Evaluation Services (CES) (Charities Evaluations Services, 2006) and Threshold, which uses a quality of life measure that includes involvement in decision-making as part of the Community of Communities (CofC) is a standards-based quality improvement network which brings together therapeutic communities (TCs) in the UK and abroad.